Characteristics and Reflections on the Interdisciplinary Development of International “Double S” Journals——Taking 641 SCI and SSCI Dual Indexed Journals as Examples
Abstract [Objective] Taking SCI and SSCI dual-incorporated journals (hereinafter referred to as “Double S” journals) as an example, a comprehensive and objective presentation of the overall development of interdisciplinary journals in the natural sciences and social sciences is discussed. Disciplinary development characteristics, to find inspiration for the development of interdisciplinary academic journals, especially English journals.
[Methods] Based on the 2017 JCR and WoS databases, bibliometric methods and case analysis methods were used to analyze the interdisciplinary development characteristics of "Double S" journals.
[Results] There are a total of 641 "Double S" journals (5 in China), involving 77 SCI disciplines, 50 SSCI disciplines, and 17 ESI disciplines, of which there are 7 "Double S" disciplines; "Double S" The overall subject division layout of the journal is ideal, that is, the number of high-level journals is higher than the number of low-level journals; the types of high-level "double S" journals are more abundant and diversified, and the impact factors, total citation frequency, paper impact scores, There are obvious differences between the annual paper load and other low-level journals.
[Conclusion] China has the potential and opportunity to establish interdisciplinary journals in the fields of general social science (informatics and library science), computer science, engineering science, economics and business, environment / ecology, psychiatry / psychology, etc. Keywords: SCI; SSCI; natural science; social science; interdisciplinary; characteristics science and technology advance with each passing day, philosophy and social sciences flourish and development, multidisciplinary cross integration becomes an inevitable trend, especially the intersection of natural science and social science will become a major innovation The important sources and pathways of the production [1,2]. Therefore, the interdisciplinary phenomenon of academic journal manuscripts and the positioning of interdisciplinary academic journals are becoming increasingly common . Some scholars have carried out research on issues such as periodical evaluation [1, 4] and periodical construction  in a cross-disciplinary context. However, at present, few studies have explored the overall development and laws of interdisciplinary journals of natural sciences and social sciences from the perspective of interdisciplinary distribution. The core collection of Web of Science (WoS), as a document data analysis tool, is widely used in evaluating periodicals, papers, and related researches in subject development. Although the two databases of SCI and SSCI focus on the fields of natural sciences and social sciences respectively, there are still a considerable number of journals jointly indexed by these two databases. This part of the "jointly indexed" journals has a clear cross-sector of natural sciences and social sciences. Subject characteristics. At present, there are no comprehensive literature reports on SCI and SSCI dual-indexed journals (hereinafter referred to as "Double-S" journals), and only some scholars have studied the cases of "Double-S" journals  or the "Double-S" journals in a certain discipline. S "journal [7,8]. This research system sorts out relevant data of international "double S" journals, from SCI, SSCI, Basic Science Indicators (ESI) subject classification, subject division, comparison of citation indicators in each district, and top "double Q1" journal cases. To explore the interdisciplinary characteristics of international "double S" journals and their implications for the international development of interdisciplinary journals in China.
1 Data sources and research methods
1.1 Data Sources The Journal Citation Reports (JCR) published on June 26, 2018 included a total of 11,655 journals. After downloading the full text of the JCR report, it was found that there were 641 "double S" journals, accounting for 5.5%. It can be seen from Figure 1 that only 8351 journals indexed by SCI account for a large proportion (71.7%), and another 2659 journals are indexed by SSCI only, accounting for 22.8%.
1.2 Research Methods Log in to the WoS database to search the publishing location, publishing language, period, impact factor, total cited frequency, paper impact score, annual paper load, literature selection rate, and paper load of 641 “double S” journals one by one. The relevant information and measurement indicators of the first author's country and region, the disciplines and divisions of SCI, the disciplines and divisions of SSCI, and the disciplines and divisions of ESI. The journal's impact factor, total citation frequency, paper impact score, annual paper volume, and literature selection rate were compared and analyzed. Based on bibliometric indicators, two top “double S” journals were selected as cases for analysis.
2 Results and analysis
2.1 Overview of International "Double S" Periodicals 2.1.1 Geographical Distribution of Places of Publication and Leading Authors Although the publication sites of 641 "Double S" Periodicals are distributed in 34 countries, the United States (273) and the United Kingdom (182) have absolute advantages (71%). The Netherlands ranks among the top three (52) thanks to the headquarters of two major international publishers, Elsevier and Wolters Kluwer, in Amsterdam. Eleven of Germany's 22 journals are published by Springer, and the headquarters of this famous international publisher are located in Berlin and Heidelberg. The number of "Double S" journals published in the remaining countries are: 19 in Switzerland, 17 in Australia, 8 in Canada, 7 in Brazil and Spain, 6 in Italy, 5 in China and France, and 4 in Ireland and Japan. There are 3 species each in New Zealand and South Korea, 2 species each in South Africa, Norway, Sweden, Chile, Croatia, Czech Republic, and 1 species each in Turkey, Afghanistan, Argentina, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, Hungary, India, Iran, Israel, Malaysia and Romania.
In 2017, JCR added author geographic data (Contributions by Country / Region) to display information about countries and regions with a large number of publications in a certain journal in the past 3 years (the year cycle used to calculate the impact factor). This study counted 641 countries and regions (30) with the largest number of "Double S" journals, of which 437 journals (68.2%) were the major contributors to the United States, followed by the United Kingdom (52). , Australia (30 species), China (22 species), Germany (14 species), Canada (12 species), Spain (11 species). Based on the analysis of the publication place data, it is found that the overall geographical distribution of "Double S" journals and the countries with the largest number of publications are similar, covering more than 30 countries. A further comparison of the top 10 countries that published the number of "Double S" journals found that although the United States has the most "Double S" journals, it still cannot meet the huge demand of domestic authors; the UK has a large number of "Double S" journals, but its domestic research The performance of the staff is inferior to that of the United States; although the Netherlands and Switzerland publish more "Double S" journals, the contribution of authors in the region is lower; although there are only 5 "Double S" journals in China, Chinese authors are in 22 The number of journals published topped the list.
2.1.2 Publishing languages and cycles 607 of the 641 journals are English journals, accounting for 95%. Another 17 (2.5%) periodicals are published in English, supplemented by Spanish, Portuguese, French, German, Arabic, Turkish and other languages. There are only 17 journals (2.5%) published in non-English, including 7 in Spanish, 4 in Portuguese, 3 in Italian, 1 in Korean, German, and Dutch, of which only 1 in non-Indo-European journals Species-Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing (Korean). The journal was founded in 1970 and is the journal of the Korean Nursing Association.The original journal was named The Journal of Nurses Academic Society, which was changed to its current journal in 1998.It was changed from a quarterly journal to a bimonthly journal in 1999.The text of the journal is in Korean, but the abstract and The chart is in English, and the title and author information are bilingual in Korean and English. From the point of view of the period, quarterly (217), bimonthly (171) and monthly (112) are still the mainstream of "double S" journals, accounting for 78%. It is worth noting that there are 20 kinds of "scheduled" journals that are published in real time on the Internet, and paperless journals. For example, BMC's Implementation Science was launched in 2006 and published one volume each year. It was published online in a single article according to the order of the paper's receipt. The literature search information was the paper number, and 155 papers were published in 2018.
2.2 Interdisciplinary Features of International “Double S” Journals 2.2.1 Classification of SCI Subjects SCI and SSCI journals published in the 2017 JCR cover 177 and 57 disciplines, respectively. After statistical analysis and summary of this study, it was found that 641 kinds of "double-S" journals involved 77 SCI disciplines and 50 SSCI disciplines, of which there were 7 "double-S" disciplines: nursing, psychiatry, public, environment, and occupational health , Geriatrics, drug abuse, biology, green sustainable science and technology. From the perspective of SCI journals, 424 journals belong to only one discipline, 188 journals belong to 2 disciplines, 26 journals belong to 3 disciplines, and 3 journals belong to 4 disciplines; among them, the number of journals ranks in the top 10. The SCI disciplines are: Nursing (114 types), Psychiatry (86 types), Public, Environmental and Occupational Health (70 types), Psychology (60 types), Health Sciences and Services (49 types), History and Science Philosophy (39 types), mathematics and interdisciplinary applications (32 types), engineering (28 types), neuroscience (23 types), rehabilitation (22 types).
2.2.2 Classification of SSCI disciplinesFrom the perspective of SSCI journals, 450 journals belong to only one discipline, 176 journals belong to 2 disciplines, and 15 journals belong to 3 disciplines; among them, the top 10 SSCI disciplines They are: Nursing (113 types), Psychiatry (80 types), Public, Environmental and Occupational Health (72 types), Economics (46 types), Health Policy and Services (40 types), History (37 types) , Philosophy of history and science (37 types), management (28 types), clinical psychology (25 types), rehabilitation (24 types). As far as the single issue is concerned, the European Journal of Cancer Care belongs to the largest number of disciplines, involving 6 disciplines: oncology, health science and service, nursing and rehabilitation (SCI), and nursing and rehabilitation (SSCI).
2.2.3 ESI Subject Classification The ESI database is a quantitative analysis database based on the literature records of journals included in SCI and SSCI. Compared with ESI, the subject classification of SCI and SSCI is more complex and specialized, and there are a considerable number of journals "interdisciplinary". For example, of the 641 "double S" journals in this study, SCIs belonging to more than 2 disciplines The number of journals included in SSCI and SSCI accounted for 33.9% and 29.8%, respectively. ESI's journal classification is concise and clear, with only 22 subject classifications, and each journal corresponds to only 1 subject, so it is more suitable for horizontal comparative analysis of academic journal groups . The 641 "double S" journals of this study were found according to the ESI discipline classification, involving a total of 17 disciplines, and another 5 disciplines were not involved, namely materials science, microbiology, chemistry, space science, and immunology. The data in Table 1 show that the total number of "double S" journals in the three disciplines of general social sciences, clinical medicine, psychiatry / psychology is as many as 507 (79.1%). From the perspective of journal quality (only refer to the JCR journal partition), the quality of journals in the three fields of general social science, psychiatry / psychology, and economics and business is relatively high (the proportion of journals in Q1 ~ Q2 is higher than that in Q3 ~ Q4) The clinical medical journals are the opposite (the proportion of journals in Q3 ~ Q4 area is higher than that in Q1 ~ Q2 area). This shows that most high-level journals in the field of clinical medicine only focus on SCI disciplines, and it is difficult to take into account the characteristics of "double S".
Based on the classification of ESI disciplines, this study calculates the average value of measurement indicators such as journal impact factors, total citations, paper impact scores, paper load, and literature selection rate in each subject area, to provide an overview of different disciplines. Overall journal differences. Overall, the 10 journals in the environment / ecology performed well, with an average impact factor of 4.499 (ranked 1), a total of 5318 citations (ranked 3), and an impact score of 2.048 (ranked 1). The paper load was 461 (ranked 1), and the literature selection rate was 96.21 (ranked 8). Among them, the Nature Climate Change impact factor and its paper's impact scores are as high as 19.181 and 9.464, respectively; the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health and Sustainability have published 1568 and 2346 papers, respectively, and the authors of these two journals have the most papers The groups are all from China.
2.2.4 Disciplinary Division The JCR division is naturally divided into 4 districts according to the ranking of the journal's impact factor in the subject in that year. Since about 30% of the journals in this study belong to multiple SCI / SSCI disciplines at the same time, the "high principle" is adopted. ", Take its highest division uniformly. Figure 2 shows the subject rankings of 641 “double-S” journals. On the whole, the partition layout of “Double S” journals is ideal, that is, the number of “Double S” journals in 4 partitions is ranked as Q1> Q2> Q3> Q4, and the average values of the three disciplines of SCI, SSCI, and ESI are calculated. It can be seen that the periodicals in Q1 ~ Q2 area account for 57.9%, and the periodicals in Q4 area account for 19.5%. However, there are slight differences in the classification system of different disciplines.For example, from the perspective of SCI indexing, the distribution of periodicals in different regions is not much different; from the perspective of SSCI indexing, the advantages of periodical journals in Q1 ~ Q2 are very obvious (400 types, accounting for 62.4%). In particular, there are as many as 226 journals (35.3%) in Q1 district journals; the regional distribution of journals under the ESI classification system tends to mean both SCI and SSCI, but the number of journals in Q3 district is more than the former two. It can be seen that "double S" journals are more dominant in the SSCI classification system.For example, there are 7 types of SCI indexed journals in the Q4 area. In the SSCI classification system, the journals belong to Q2 (6 types) and Q1 (1 type, Journal of Neurolinguistics). However, there are only 108 journals in Q4 area indexed by SSCI in Q1 ~ Q2 area in the SCI classification system (Q2, Journal of Mathematical Sociology). Taking the "double S" discipline of psychiatry (both SCI and SSCI) Q1 ~ Q2 area journals as an example, it accounts for 53% of the SCI subject area and 65% of the SSCI subject area . The reason may be due to the use of the same impact factor (only one impact factor for each journal in that year) for partition ranking, but the number of journals included by SCI and SSCI has a large difference (in 2018, JCR included 8,990 SCI journals and 3,300 journals, respectively). SSCI journals).
2.2.5 The comparative statistics of the cited index of each district found that the impact factors of most "double S" journals were mainly concentrated in 0.5 ~ 2.0, and the annual papers were mainly concentrated in 20 ~ 80 articles. In order to further compare and analyze the journals of different disciplines, this study screened 458 journals that met the same criteria for both SCI and SSCI disciplines: there were 164 journals in the Q1 area ("double Q1"), and 109 journals in the same time. In the Q2 area ("Double Q2"), 86 journals are in the Q3 area ("Double Q3"), and 99 journals are in the Q4 area ("Double Q4"). This study analyzes the data of these 458 journals and compares the differences and characteristics of journals from different disciplines (Table 2).
Judging from the publication cycle, the "Double Q1" journals publish an average of 7.7 issues per year, which is significantly higher than the other three divisions. The average annual number of "Double Q4" journals is only 4.9 issues. From the perspective of impact factors, the average impact factor of the "Double Q1" journal is 4.6, which is significantly higher than the other three divisions. The average impact factor of the "Double Q4" journal is only 0.6. From the perspective of total citations, the average average frequency of "Double Q1" journals was 8,518 times, which was significantly higher than the other three divisions. The average average total frequency of "Double Q4" journals was only 639 times. The disparity in the impact scores of the papers is also very obvious. The average impact of the papers in the "Double Q1" journal is 1.9, which is significantly higher than the other three divisions. The average impact of the papers in the "Double Q4" journal is only 0.2. From the perspective of annual papers, the annual papers of "Double Q1" and "Double Q2" journals are significantly higher than those of "Double Q3" and "Double Q4" journals, but the "Double Q1" and "Double Q2" journals There is not much difference between the annual paper load. The literature selection rate can be simply understood as the proportion of reviews and original papers. This study finds that compared with "double Q4" journals, the article types of "double Q1" journals are more abundant and diversified.
2.2.6 Case study of top “Double Q1” journals This research is based on the top 5% subject area ranking and selection principles, taking into account indicators such as annual publication volume, impact factors, total cited frequency, and literature selection rate (above the overall average) ), Two "big and strong" top two "S" journals were selected as cases. These two types of journals are the American Journal of Public Health (AJPH), an established journal founded in 1911, and Nature Climate Change (NCC), a subsidiary of Nature Publishing Group (NPG). . AJPH ranks 16th among 181 journals indexed by SCI in the field of public, environment and occupational health, and ranks 4th among 157 journals indexed by SSCI in this field.In the past 20 years, the impact factor has stabilized at 3.5 ~ 4.5, and its latest impact factor is 4.380 , The paper's impact score is 2.303; of the 5,648 published articles retrieved by WoS, there are 182 "highly cited papers", accounting for 3%; about 2,700 manuscripts are received each year, and the average paper volume is about 500. The manuscript acceptance rate is about 18.5%. NCC ranks 2nd in 242 environmental science (SCI) journals and 1st in 109 environmental research (SSCI) journals; the latest impact factor reaches 19.181, the 5-year impact factor reaches 22.363, and the paper's impact score is 9.469. Cited nearly 18,000 times; of the 2415 published articles retrieved by WoS, there were 244 “highly cited papers”, accounting for 10%; like other magazines under NPG, NCC does not set up an external editorial board, only The editor team is composed of 4 editors, senior editors and 2 deputy editors. The common feature of these two top "double S" journals is that the column settings are rich and diverse: AJPH can choose up to 13 types of articles (research papers, essays, systematic reviews, letters and replies, editors' selection, opinion editorials, reviews, analysis Essays, historical essays, public health practices, sound, news, images). NCC also has 10 types of articles (letters, original papers, review papers, perspectives, news and opinions, communications, real-time reviews of paper tracking, reviews, books and art, and popular science), of which the number of original papers and review papers only accounts for 7.8% of total posts.
2.3 Analysis of "Double S" Periodicals in China, Japan, and Korea This study aims to find inspiration for the development of interdisciplinary academic journals in China, especially English periodicals, by analyzing the interdisciplinary development characteristics of "Double S" periodicals. Japan, South Korea, and China are both Asian research powers and periodical powers. They are also non-English speaking countries. Therefore, a comparative analysis of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean journals has certain research significance . Judging from the number of journals alone, the performance of the "Double S" journals in China, Japan, and South Korea is average. Although they are far less powerful than those in the UK and the United States, they are significantly more than Sweden, Norway, Finland, and India. According to the data released by the JCR in 2017, there are 12 types of "Shuang S" journals in China, Japan and South Korea (Table 3). There are 5 types of "Double S" journals in China, of which there is only 1 type in the mainland, namely the Journal of Sport and Health Science sponsored by the Shanghai Institute of Sport, and 2 types in Hong Kong-Transportmetrica A: Transport Science and Transportmetrica B: There are two types of Transport Dynamics in Taiwan-International Journal of Design sponsored by Taiwan Design Society and Journal of Nursing Research sponsored by Taiwan Nursing Society. There are 4 "double S" journals in Japan, namely Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine sponsored by the Japanese Institute of Health, Nursing & Health Sciences sponsored by the Yamaguchi University Society of Nursing and Health Sciences, Geriatrics & Gerontology International sponsored by the Japanese Geriatrics Society, and Japanese Nursing Japan Journal of Nursing Science sponsored by the college. There are three types of "double S" journals in Korea, namely the Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing sponsored by the Korean Nursing Academy, the Psychiatry Investigation sponsored by the Korean Neuropsychiatric Association, and the Asian Nursing Research sponsored by the Korean Nursing Society.
Comparing the "double S" journals in China, Japan, and South Korea, it can be found that the Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing in South Korea was the earliest to be published and has a 49-year history, but the impact factor is relatively low. Both the SCI and SSCI discipline systems are in the Q4 area. The impact score is only 0.129.The other two journals were founded in the early 21st century and are also in the Q3 area.Four Japanese journals were concentrated in the period from 1996 to 2004.Geriatrics & Gerontology International has a higher academic influence and is located in the SSCI discipline. In the system Q1 area, the total number of citations was 2640, the number of posts was as high as 331, and the paper's impact score was 0.677. In contrast, China's "Double S" journals started late, and all five journals were launched in the 21st century, but the overall subject ranking and division are better, 80% of which are journals in the Q2 district. The academic impact of the two types of journals in Taiwan is average, and the impact score of the papers is only about 0.3. Among them, the International Journal of Design has only 15 papers published each year. The two types of journals in Hong Kong are more distinctive, both of which are sponsored by the Hong Kong Institute of Transportation Research. They were founded in 2005 and 2013. They belong to a series of journals in the same discipline. The papers have an impact score of 0.68 and 0.85, but the number of papers published is not large. (40 and 21 respectively). The Journal of Sport and Health Science in Mainland China is a rising star. It is sponsored by the Shanghai Institute of Physical Education. It was first published in May 2012 and was included by SCI and SSCI at the same time in January 2014. The paper's impact score is 0.707. Enter the "Double Q1" area).
Taken together, the 12 "Double S" journals in China, Japan, and South Korea are mostly published in cooperation with large international publishers, including: Wiley (3 types), Elsevier (2 types), Taylor & Francis (2 types), and Springer (1 type). , Wolters Kluwer (1 species). Seven journals have adopted the Open Access publishing model, and only five journals (the five journals under the Wiley and Taylor & Francis) still use the traditional subscription model. One journal is published in a language other than English, the Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing (Korean). In terms of author internationalization, journal authors in South Korea and Japan are mainly domestic researchers.Manuscripts in Hong Kong are mainly from mainland scholars, Nursing & Health Sciences in Japan, International Journal of Design in Taiwan, and Journal of Shanghai in Shanghai. The authors of Sport and Health Science have a high degree of internationalization. The author groups with the highest number of posts are from Australia, the Netherlands and the United States. From a disciplinary point of view, Japanese and Korean "Double S" journals are mainly concentrated in the field of nursing (two each), and there are competitions in the same field in the country. China's five journals are in different disciplines (except for "sister journals" in Hong Kong). ). However, from the perspective of the overall array of 641 "double-S" journals, there is much room for improvement in terms of quantity and quality of China-Japan-Korea "Double-S" journals.
3 Conclusions and reflections
A total of 641 "double S" journals were sorted out in this study, 5 in China (2 each in Hong Kong and Taiwan, and only 1 in mainland China). Due to taking into account the nature of social sciences, the publishing language of "Double S" journals is almost monopolized by English. From the perspective of the distribution of disciplines, 641 types of "Double S" journals involved 77 SCI disciplines (177 in total), 50 SSCI disciplines (57 in total), and 17 ESI disciplines (22 in total), of which 7 "Dual S" S "disciplines: nursing, psychiatry, public, environmental and occupational health, geriatrics, drug abuse, biology, green sustainable science and technology. The impact factors of "double S" journals are mainly concentrated in 0.5 ~ 2.0, and the annual paper volume is mainly concentrated in 20 ~ 80 articles. Because the number of journals included in the SCI database is much larger than that of the SSCI database, the "double S" journals have an advantage in the ranking of SSCI disciplines. Although "Double S" journals do not account for a high proportion in the SCI and SSCI databases (5.5%), their overall subject area layout is ideal, that is, the number of high-level journals ("Double Q1" and "Double Q2") is more than low Number of horizontal journals ("Double Q3" and "Double Q4" areas).
The important mission of academic journals is to lead and promote the development of disciplines. "Double S" journals have their unique advantages in the construction of cross disciplines of natural sciences and social sciences.For example, nearly 300 journals in the fields of nursing, psychiatry, public, environment, and occupational health have obvious interdisciplinary characteristics. It is necessary to further sort out and summarize the development law of "Double S" journals. This research currently finds that the "double Q1" top journals have the following characteristics: strong industry (association) support for flagship journals that can create this academic field; pinpointing discipline positioning is a key breakthrough in the development of new journals; rich article types can be expanded Readership and increase journal impact and visibility. Chinese authors ranked first in the number of publications in 22 "double S" journals, mainly in general social sciences (informatics and library science), computer science, engineering sciences, economics and business, environment / ecology, psychiatry / Psychology and other fields show that these disciplines have the potential and opportunities to create new journals. This conclusion is partially consistent with related research by other scholars. For example, Zhang Xiaoyu et al.  believed that English journals should be encouraged to be established in the fields of computer science, informatics and library science, and engineering science. Of course, the "double S" model is not a shortcut to journal development. We should follow the objective laws of subject development and journal development, further explore the international development of Chinese academic journals, and promote the cross-integration of natural and social sciences.
Author Contribution Statement:
Bao Fang: Collect and process data, write a dissertation;
Wu Jian: Design the thesis framework and proofread the thesis.
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