Industry Watch | The dynamic evolution and main content of the internationalization of academic journals in China
Abstract Taking 317 documents included in the CNKI database from 1994 to 2018 as samples, this paper analyzes the overall situation of the internationalization of academic journals from the aspects of research process evolution, publication carrier, research type, and research object setting. The main research content in this field. The results show that the research on the internationalization of academic journals covers four main stages and the publication carrier is relatively concentrated; there are problems such as a single type of research and insufficient mathematical analysis at the quantitative level, and there are a small number of literatures dedicated to the internationalization of humanities and social sciences journals; The main contents of the research include the connotation and main characteristics of the internationalization of academic journals, development evaluation, beneficial experience and promotion strategies.
Keywords academic journals; internationalization; dynamic evolution; promotion strategies. The role of media communication has been critical in the dissemination and competition of the discourse system. As an academic journal that inherits human civilization, converges scientific development, and leads the development of science and technology, it needs to reflect the systematicness, professionalism, originality, and timeliness in the process of external communication. Therefore, the internationalization of academic journals is unstoppable. Through analysis, it is known that the existing scholars' discussions on the internationalization of academic journals are mostly based on a certain aspect, and there are very few research results that can review the historical process of internationalization of academic journals and systematically review the main content of internationalization of academic journals. Using the full-text database of China Knowledge Network (CNKI) journals and bibliometrics, this article comprehensively displays the connotation and main features of academic journal internationalization, development evaluation, beneficial experience, and promotion strategies, and clearly reveals the dynamic evolution of academic journal internationalization research. Process and important content, so as to continuously promote the in-depth development of this research.
1 The data source is based on the full-text database of China Knowledge Network (CNKI) journals. The subject words are set to "Journal Internationalization" and "Academic Journals" and include "Internationalization". The retrieval time is as of December 1, 2018. After a preliminary search, 317 valid articles were selected whose academic subjects were academic journals, which were consistent with the research theme and had a certain academic quality. Among them, there are 237 journal articles, 11 dissertations, 63 conference papers, and 6 newspaper articles.
2 Overview of Internationalization of Academic Journals
2.1 Evolution of the research process The distribution of the number of literatures on the internationalization of academic journals is shown in Figure 1. In the course of 25 years of development, the number of literatures on the internationalization of academic journals has been tortuous and fluctuating.
Based on the time distribution of the literature and the changing internal and external environment of journal publishing (such as landmark events in the journal world, important documents and policies issued by the competent department of the journal, etc.), this article divides the evolution of academic journal internationalization research into four Phase: the initial rise phase, the steady improvement phase, the rapid development phase, and the tortuous progress phase.
2.1.1 1994-2001: Initial Rising Period In 1994, Cao Ming  earlier analyzed the prominent features of the internationalization of scientific and technological academic journals. From 1995 to 1997, the number of literatures on the internationalization of academic journals was zero for three consecutive years. Until 2001, the number of relevant literatures on this issue was still less than 5 per year. At this stage, the internationalization of academic journals is relatively sluggish. The emergence of international academic journals is a new trend and new trend in the development of foreign science and technology academic journals. Compared with developed countries, China's academic journal publishing industry There is a big gap between the indexing system and the retrieval system . At this stage, China's academic journals began to try and explore internationalization, but it is difficult to implement internationalization strategies in a broad and in-depth manner, because fundamentally, the internationalization of China's publishing industry lacks the necessary foundation. This stage is just an attempt and germination stage for scholars in China to carry out internationalization of academic journals.
2.1.2 2002-2008: Steady improvement phase Since 2002, the number of Chinese literature on the internationalization of academic journals began to increase significantly. The main reasons are as follows: from the external environment analysis, the degree of interdependence of economic development among countries has deepened, and China's foreign exchange With the further expansion of cooperation, the internationalization of academic journals is inevitable. From the analysis of internal conditions, after more than ten years of development, China's academic journal publishing industry has leapt to the forefront in terms of quantity, scale, and type, but has an international reputation. There are not many academic journals. Therefore, the internationalization of academic journals is an inevitable choice for the development and growth of China's academic journal publishing industry.
2.1.33 years: The number of literatures on the internationalization of academic journals at a rapid development stage reached a small peak at this stage, mainly due to: First, the inherent requirements of academic communities. Although China's scientific research level has made great progress and high-level scientific research results have emerged endlessly, the quality, reputation and internationalization of China's academic journals are still not high. In order to cope with the impact of strong overseas brand academic journals and retain the outstanding domestic research results In the future, some academic journals of good quality and with certain strength in China are actively developing internationally. Second, in order to "go global" in the development of Chinese culture and publishing, relevant national departments actively promote the internationalization of academic journals. Driven by internal and external factors, the internationalization of academic journals in China has ushered in a flourishing stage.
2.1.4 From 2014 to the present: The tortuous progress period After 2014, the number of literature on the internationalization of academic journals has fluctuated significantly. The reason for this phenomenon is: On the one hand, in the actual operation process, there are various types of internationalization of academic journals. Misunderstandings, especially the single goal and path of internationalization, most academic journals' "going global" effect is not obvious; on the other hand, the research on the internationalization of academic journals falls into the plaque of internationalization on "editing and publishing". Insufficient multi-disciplinary macro vision . However, academic journals shoulder the important mission of disseminating advanced science and technology culture, conducting academic exchanges at home and abroad, leading academic directions, serving scientific decisions and innovative development in various industries, training high-level innovative talents, and promoting human civilization and progress. Research is still and should be a major focus and hot issue in the field of periodicals research in China.
2.2 The carrier of the dissertation analysis of 317 literatures shows that the proportions of journal articles, dissertations, conference papers, and newspaper articles were 74.76%, 3.47%, 19.87%, and 1.9%. By digging through the specific data, we can see that the internationalization research of academic journals is concentrated, and high-level journals in the field of editing and publishing have continued to pay attention to this issue, which has greatly promoted the research process and enhanced the research's influence.
2.3 Main types of research Among the 317 literatures, theoretical research, case studies, and mathematical analysis were the main types of research. The three accounted for 59.62%, 31.86%, and 8.52%, respectively. Most scholars conduct theoretical explorations at the qualitative level. A few scholars combine specific cases, but few scholars perform mathematical analysis at the quantitative level.
2.4 Setting of research objects Among the 317 documents, the number of documents with science and technology journals and humanities and social science journals as their main research objects accounted for 53.3% and 5.4%, respectively, while the number of documents that did not distinguish between research objects was 41.4%. From this we can see that there are very few literatures dedicated to the internationalization of humanities and social science journals. In addition, there are fewer related papers comparing the internationalization of scientific and technological journals and the internationalization of humanities and social science journals.
3 Main contents of internationalization of academic journals
3.1 The connotation and main features of the internationalization of academic journals The connotation and main features of the internationalization of academic journals was one of the earliest key issues to be explored in this field of research. Today, these issues have not reached a consensus conclusion.
3.1.1 The connotation of internationalization of academic journals The connotation of internationalization of academic journals can be explored from the micro level and the macro level. The definition of typical connotations is shown in Table 1.
From the analysis of the micro level, it can be seen that the connotation of the internationalization of academic journals is equivalent to the characteristics of internationalization of academic journals and the objectives of journals are not appropriate, because the characteristics of internationalization of academic journals are only the external manifestations of the internationalization of academic journals. Running an international journal is one of the main goals of internationalizing academic journals. Analyzing the macro level, we can see that globalization and internationalization are two distinct concepts. Internationalization is the advanced stage of globalization. Although the latter view is accepted by most scholars, it mainly involves the background, approach, and characteristics of journal internationalization. Etc., but its definition is relatively broad, and the essential characteristics and common attributes of the internationalization of journals are still not clearly expressed.
This article believes that the essential attribute of "internationalization" is "a common state, trend, and process", and the internationalization of academic journals refers more to the academic journals' process and content in the process of economic globalization and integration. Innovations in management and management methods, and gradually integrated into the international journal market.
3.1.2 Main Features of the Internationalization of Academic Journals Regarding the research on the main features of internationalization of academic journals, the research conclusions at each stage have both similarities and significant differences.
Cao Ming  for the first time explored the main features of the internationalization of sci-tech periodicals, covering the internationalization of authors, internationalization of editing and publishing, internationalization of publishing terms, and internationalization of promotion. Later, as the research entered a steadily improving stage, the research on the characteristics of internationalization of academic journals has accumulated extremely rich results. For example, Liu Xueli et al.  expanded the characteristics of internationalization of academic journals from 4 aspects to 10 aspects. Most of the basic characteristics of internationalization of academic journals proposed by scholars have upheld the traditional research results, but these characteristics have been added or combined to meet different research purposes.
3.2 Evaluation of Internationalization of Academic Journals
3.2.1 Implementation of qualitative analysis In the qualitative evaluation of the internationalization of academic journals, both micro and macro perspectives are common. For example, Li Ailing  mainly expounded from the micro-levels such as journal source, international communication methods and approaches, compilation standards, and international search; while Cheng Qihou et al  comprehensively analyzed the advantages, disadvantages, Opportunities and challenges; In addition, Wu Ling and Yang Yu  evaluated the political, economic, social, and technological environment of the internationalization of academic journals in the humanities and social sciences in China as a whole.
3.2.2 Quantitative analysis is carried out through quantitative mathematical statistics. The internationalization of academic journals is also extensive, and the main content generally involves data sources and evaluation indicators. In terms of data sources, many scholars use the Journal of Citation Reports (JCR) as the main data source for journal internationalization evaluation . In addition, Ding Zuoqi  used the new index of journal evaluation-Cite Score when evaluating the international influence of sci-tech journals in Jiangsu Province.
In terms of evaluation indicators, most scholars use JCR data as the main basis for specific analysis from impact factors and frequency of citations. A few scholars have designed their own evaluation index systems based on different research purposes, such as Huafang and Feng Yulin  It is believed that author internationalization and reader internationalization are the two key characteristics of internationalized journals; Zhu Daming  introduced the calculation of internationalization degree indicators based on the number of international papers, the frequency of international citations, and the number of manuscript source countries formula. It is worth noting that Jiang Haixi and Wu Zhenyu  proposed the calculation formula for the internationalization of economic journals based on the internationalization of enterprises.
3.3 Beneficial Experiences in the Internationalization of Academic Journals Many scholars often choose a journal or class of journals with a rapid internationalization process as the research object, and systematically analyze the specific practices and related experiences of these journals, in order to provide other journals with internationalization Must learn from and guide. With the help of bibliometric analysis, the author made statistics on the frequency of being mentioned in a case journal, a subject journal and a regional journal, as shown in Table 2.
In the course of 25 years of development, scholars' experience of internationalization of academic journals has become increasingly comprehensive, in-depth and objective. At the same time, the voice of reflection is carried through. For example, Wu Weigen et al.  proposed that it is impossible and unrealistic for all of China's periodicals to achieve internationalization. It is necessary to carry out a clear positioning of the periodicals, focus on supporting high-level periodicals, and gradually drive them. Aiming at the relationship between journal internationalization and localization, more and more scholars have proposed dialectical consideration. At this stage, the promotion of China's traditional culture and characteristics has become a research hotspot, and the internationalization of academic journals must also pay attention to the promotion and export of China's traditional culture.
3.4 Promotion strategies for the internationalization of academic journals The research results on the promotion strategies for the internationalization of academic journals are the most abundant and the perspectives are the most diverse. Comprehensive analysis shows that scholars have proposed three strategies to promote the internationalization of academic journals.
The first: based on the main characteristics of the internationalization of academic journals, combined with the trend and advantages of the development of the times, corresponding development strategies are proposed for each of these characteristics, which is a form favored by many scholars. In the rising stage, scholars mostly started from the main features of internationalization of manuscript sources, internationalization of editing and publishing, and proposed improvement measures such as expanding the amount of international manuscript sources and hiring international scholars as editors. Later, due to the rise of information technology, the trend of global economic integration has become more and more obvious. Scholars have proposed that the internationalization of academic journals should pay attention to new features such as informatization, networking, marketization, and industrialization .
The second type: the role of different subjects in the internationalization of academic journals is different, and a corresponding development strategy is proposed for each subject. The internationalization development of academic journals involves government agencies, periodicals (especially editors and editors), their sponsors, and journal management departments, and so on. Different development proposals are required for different subjects.
Third: According to the different time periods (short-term and long-term), specific strategies for the internationalization of academic journals at different development stages are proposed. Wu Jingmin  divided the international development of academic journals into three stages, including "introducing", "going out" and "bigger and stronger". At the "introduction" stage, we need to attract excellent overseas manuscript sources; to the "go global" stage, we need to maximize the quality of the papers; to enter the "bigger and stronger" stage, we must strive to achieve the scale of academic journals, intensification. In addition, Dong Ce et al.  proposed that the initial stage of the internationalization of sci-tech periodicals mainly includes the internationalization of the editorial board and the internationalization of reviewers. However, entering the true internationalization stage requires the group management and operation mechanism. And many other aspects to carry out some degree of innovation and reform.
To sum up, the internationalization development strategies of the three different forms of academic journals have different emphases, but have certain similarities. Based on this, this article constructs a comprehensive strategy for the internationalization of academic journals, as shown in Figure 2.
At different stages of the international development of academic journals, specific strategies should have different focuses. In the "introduction" phase, academic journals need to have the basic characteristics of internationalization and realize the full play of the role of different subjects; in the "going out" phase, academic journals must not only establish a distribution and marketing team in line with international development, but also strengthen digital In the "bigger and stronger" stage, academic journals need to reform and innovate operating mechanisms, group operations, etc., with the aim of enhancing China's cultural soft power and achieving active cooperation with social development strategies. It should be noted that not every academic journal needs to develop internationally in strict accordance with the above-mentioned stages. With the promotion of internal and external factors, the internationalization of many academic journals may show a leap-forward development trend.
4 Prospects for the internationalization of academic journals The first is the emphasis on the internationalization of scientific journals and humanities and social science journals. In the existing literature, the proportion of papers devoted to the internationalization of humanities and social science journals is only 5.4%, and scholars have not carefully distinguished the internationalization differences between scientific and technological journals and humanities and social science journals. As an important representative of China's cultural soft power, a humanities and social sciences journal that can provide the world with Chinese ideas and Chinese solutions, its internationalization research is also extremely important. Scholars should pay attention to the uniqueness of the internationalization of Chinese humanities and social sciences journals and propose differences Sexual international competition strategy.
Second, strengthen related theoretical foundations. Only a few scholars have attempted to combine strategic management theory, communication theory, and internationalization of academic journals. For the internationalization of academic journals, if there is no rich and diverse theoretical guidance, it will limit the research horizon to a certain extent, resulting in the inability of this research to draw on the beneficial results of other fields in the broad subject system. Therefore, the internationalization of academic journals needs to be widely combined with brand gene theory, industrial economics theory, modern system theory, and social network theory. Only by actively applying theories of various disciplines and focusing on the coordination of normative and empirical research can we expand the academic journal internationally. Vision of research.
Third, mining and expanding the international research content of academic journals. At present, the research on the internationalization of academic journals is nothing more than four aspects: connotation and main characteristics, development evaluation, beneficial experience, and promotion strategies. Although each aspect has achieved rich research results, it can still be based on the internationalization of journals. The actual situation deepens and expands it. For example, in the new era of development, more and more academic journals may present a leap-type international development trend, while the traditional progressive view is a static, cross-sectional analysis paradigm, which urgently needs to be introduced New paradigm of dynamic analysis.
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