Special Planning | Advance Measures for the Construction of Academic Journal Services "Double First Class"
Abstract [Objective] Analyze and discuss the role of academic journals as external academic windows and scientific research platforms of colleges and universities in the reform and development trend of dual first-class construction of colleges and universities, and explore the development of academic journals and colleges. [Method] Explore the theoretical logic behind the coincidence of "coincidence" of world powers, world-class universities, world science and technology centers, and world academic journal centers, analyze the fundamental motivation and interaction logic of college academic journals' integration into the "double first-class" construction, and propose a dual first-class construction The active participation of the Chinese parties as a method. [Results] The construction of double-class academic journal service in the university promotes the encouragement of the government's industry management department, the deep participation of universities in the reform, and the initiative of academic journals is indispensable. [Conclusion] With the "double first-class" construction, create a world-class academic periodical group, so that university academic journal publishing and the "double first-class" construction go in the same direction and resonate.
Key words dual first-class academic journal higher education digital publishing
1 Introduction In October 2015, the State Council issued the “Overall Plan to Promote the Construction of World-Class Universities and First-Class Disciplines” (Guo Fa  No. 64). In January 2017, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Finance, and the National Development and Reform Commission jointly issued the “ Implementation Measures for Promoting the Construction of World-Class Universities and Classes (Interim) (Teaching Research  No. 2). On September 21, 2017, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Finance, and the National Development and Reform Commission jointly issued the Notice of Discipline Construction Universities and List of Construction Disciplines ", the first batch of 137" double first-class "construction universities (including 42 world-class university construction universities and 95 first-class discipline construction universities), 465" double first-class "construction disciplines  .
The "double first-class" construction has provided strong support for comprehensively improving the international competitiveness of Chinese universities, and has also sounded the charge of Chinese universities to sprint into the forefront of the world and build top universities. As an academic window and scientific research platform for colleges and universities in China, academic journals in our country should play a bridge role in cultivating and promoting the development of advantageous disciplines and cultivating high-tech scientific talents in this reform and development trend. Therefore, it is of great research value to explore the integration and development of academic journals and universities in order to build a world-class academic journal group with the help of “double first-class” construction. .
2 Status of "Double First-Class" Construction and Development of Academic Periodicals The core of "Double First-Class" construction is discipline construction, and the professionalism of academic journals is its development trend. The intersection of the user groups of the two determines the mutual progress and resonance. It is an inevitable requirement to achieve a win-win situation. Therefore, since the establishment of the "double first-class" construction, there has been an upsurge in discussions and research on the "double first-class" construction and the development of academic journal publishing.
Gao Huifang  discussed how the current university science and technology journals play a role in China's "double first-class" construction strategy and cultivate superior disciplines and train talents in such disciplines. The idea of running high-quality publications, conscientiously fulfill the function of university science and technology periodicals to disseminate advanced science and culture, to discover, support and train new academics, and promote the development of discipline construction in universities. Zheng Zheng  proposed that the journals of universities should rely on the colleges and disciplines in which they are located, plan their recent construction tasks and mid- and long-term development goals, and give play to the unique role of journals in the development of schools, and promote the quality of journals. Promotion. Yang Guangzong  proposed that the emergence of academic journals in colleges and universities was a carrier and window to show the achievements of discipline construction in universities. However, in the face of the country's "double first-class" construction background, academic journals in colleges faced new challenges. They pointed out that academic journals in universities should be made first-class Discipline brand spokespersons and display platforms, taking the construction of a journal platform that meets the requirements of "double first-class" as an important part of the university's development strategy, innovating the publishing mechanism of academic journals in universities, leading and promoting the development of first-class disciplines. Ding Zuoqi  explored the role of sci-tech journals in helping major scientific and technological breakthroughs and catalyze new discipline directions based on the analysis of the interaction and development of modern sci-tech journals and sci-tech innovations, and how sci-tech journals can establish a rapid response mechanism, focus on Guiding key scientific issues and focusing on the "double first-class" construction requirements, it is proposed that sci-tech journals in the new era should help in improving personnel training, promoting performance evaluation, and promoting the transformation of scientific and technological achievements. Hao Xue  based on the "double first-class" construction to the university journal's breakthrough possibility, the column reorganization opportunity and the development opportunity, proposed that the university journal must start from the internal strength, start from itself, proceed from the overall situation, reasonably formulate specific measures Starting from the column, we will strive to build a supporting platform, plan academic journal groups from a development perspective, and continuously improve the level of running journals. Jin Yichao  proposed that university journals should adhere to the correct political orientation, value orientation, and academic orientation, and condense the value orientation of "double first-class" construction; by stimulating academic innovation capabilities, promoting cross-disciplinary integration, enhancing editorial quality, and consolidating "double The discipline foundation of "first-class" construction; by fostering characteristic columns, giving play to regional characteristics, focusing on connotative development, and forming a unique style; by strengthening the ability of external communication, it will help colleges and universities to develop "double first-class" construction. Ding Zuoqi  also studied the contribution of SCI indexed journals sponsored by Chinese universities to the development of basic scientific indicators ESI disciplines, and found that SCI indexed journals sponsored by universities have made greater contributions to the construction of ESI disciplines in universities, but in general The influence lags behind the development of the discipline. Wan Xiaoyan  found that sci-tech periodicals have important functions in the construction of disciplines. Under the "double first-class" background, we should focus on the realization of their functions to promote the development of discipline construction. Jiang Jianfeng  interviewed the editor-in-chief of a well-known international translation journal, Babel, and put forward specific suggestions for the construction of translation disciplines and the submission of international journals. Guan Yan , Tian Jiang , Dong Yan , Wu Xiaogeng , Fan Jun , etc. also analyzed the significance and role of the university's "double first-class" construction for academic journals.
From the perspective of the existing research results, the publishing and academic circles attach great importance to the positive impact of the "double first-class" construction on the development of the academic journal publishing industry. The mutually beneficial relationship between the "double first-class" construction and the development of the academic journal publishing industry has been With a certain understanding. However, the current research is still mostly about macro-policy interpretation, focusing too much on the positive effect of "double first-class" construction on academic journals in colleges and universities, while ignoring the deep motivation for the integration of academic journals into "double first-class" construction and the deep interaction logic. The lack of a clear motivation mechanism for the study of hierarchical issues makes it difficult to generate lasting, extensive, and long-term enthusiasm and motivation between the "double first-class" construction and the interactive development of academic journals.
3 The development of academic journals and higher education, the level of science and technology, and national strength are interdependent. Since modern times, the world ’s great powers have gone through the evolution process of Italy, Britain, France, Germany, and the United States: World-class universities have successively passed through the University of Bologna and Oxford University. , The changes of the University of Cambridge, the Paris Normal University, the University of Berlin, and Harvard University; the science and technology center moved from Italy to the United Kingdom, France, and Germany, and finally to the United States in the early 20th century; academic journals from the United Kingdom passed through French professional publications Growth and domination of Germany, and finally to the United States dominate the world. National strength is closely related to the development level of science and technology, higher education, and academic journals.
3.1 Development History of World Science and Technology History At the end of the 13th century, with the development of productive forces and the advancement of production technology, the division of social labor expanded, and the emergence of capitalist production relations represented by factory handicrafts in Florence, Genoa, Venice, and other places. The Renaissance appeared in these cities, ending the dark world in Europe for nearly a thousand years. The famous scientist Galileo appeared in the Renaissance Movement, the scientific work "Star Messenger", and the scientific invention of the astronomical telescope greatly changed people's views on the world. Italy became the first global science and technology center in the 15th to early 17th centuries. In the mid-17th to the 18th centuries, a bourgeois revolution occurred in Britain. The emphasis on science and technology, the emergence of the Royal Society, and the emergence of a large number of well-known scientists (Newton, Hook, Boyle, Harley, etc.) made Britain the first time. The industrial revolution promoted Britain to become the world's science and technology center . In the late 18th century to the early 19th century, driven by the immense enlightenment, France established a series of relatively sound scientific systems and replaced Britain as a global science and technology center. From the middle of the 19th century to the middle of the 20th century, the second industrial revolution characterized by electrification appeared in Germany, making Germany a new technological center; in modern times, after the Second World War, the United States-led biotechnology and industrial revolution , And the emergence of the third industrial revolution , made the United States surpass Germany as the world's scientific and technological research center. 
3.2 History of World Higher Education History World-class universities represent the development trend of world higher education and lead the development of higher education. With the development of education and the cultivation of excellent talents, the nation's construction has entered a fast track. Therefore, accelerating the construction of world-class universities is a universal rule for the rise of world powers. From Italy in the 15th century to Britain, France, Germany, and the United States, there is no exception. : The University of Bologna in Italy was established in 1088 and is a European university. Alma Mater of all universities, University of Oxford, University of Cambridge led the world higher education in the 17th century, Paris Normal University in France was a world-renowned university in the 18th century, Berlin University in Germany was unique in the 19th century, and Harvard in the United States began to rise in the early 20th century Universities are pushing the United States to succeed in becoming a world superpower.
3.3 History of the development of world academic journals In 1536, publicly published manuscript news appeared in Italy as the earliest publication . In 1662, the Royal Society was established, and many academic organizations subsequently appeared. In the context of verbal and letter exchanges that cannot meet academic exchanges, academic journals have emerged. It is generally believed that the academic journals "Philosophy and Journal" and "Scholars Magazine", which were respectively established in Britain and France in 1665, were the earliest academic journals. With the development of science and technology, comprehensive academic journals can no longer meet the needs of scientific and technological development. In 1778, the first professional academic journal "Chemical Society" was born in the United Kingdom. In 1830, the French founded the professional geological journal "French Geological Society" [20-22]. From the 17th to the middle of the 18th century, Germany became the hegemony of the academic journal publishing industry. At this time, the relatively well-known academic journals were basically published in German. After the Second World War, the German publishing industry once declined. The United States has become a veritable publishing center for contemporary academic journals in the world. Its published academic journals are searched by SCI for 2,982, accounting for 34% of the world, 1368 by SSCI, 42% of the world, and 1,927 by EI, and the world is 43. %.
Behind the coincidence of the "coincidence" of world powers, world-class universities, world science and technology centers, and world academic journal centers is the deep coupling of the four, which promote and interdepend on each other. The emergence of world-class universities can cultivate more outstanding talents, produce more scientific research results, promote the development of science and technology, and prosper academic exchanges. Academic journals are generated, developed, and expanded due to the needs of academic exchanges. It will generate the actual demand for academic exchanges, which will lead to the development of academic journals. At the same time, the advancement of science and technology will also make people realize the important role of education, pay more attention to investment in education, and promote first-class universities; a developed academic journal market can Enhance the rate and efficiency of academic communication, enhance scientific research efficiency, promote scientific and technological progress, and then promote the development of education and improve the level of universities. Excellent higher education, advanced science and technology, and leading academic journals jointly promote the emergence of a strong country. A strong country is a strong backing for the three to continue to lead.
4 University academic journals and "double first-class" construction complement each other
4.1 Discipline construction is the foundation of "double first-class" construction. The "third forces" of academic journals that rely on and promote the development of disciplines mainly refer to laboratories, journals, and libraries . Academic journals, as an important part of the "third forces" of universities, play an important role in the construction of university social influence. For example, in the four major academic journals of the Republic of China, in addition to the "Academic Journal of the Central Academy of History and Language Research", the other three "Chinese Studies Quarterly", "Tsinghua Journal" and "Yanjing Journal" are all from universities (from Peking University, Tsinghua University, Yanjing, respectively). University), which has made great contributions to improving the influence of the three universities . The Journal of Literature, History and Philosophy sponsored by Shandong University has played an important role in the development of the liberal arts and the school's social image.
The foundation of "double first-class" construction is first-class disciplines. The disciplines of universities are mainly represented by research platforms, teams, systems, and discipline culture. It is generally believed that first-class disciplines should have first-class academic teams, scientific research results, student quality, and academic reputation . Academic journals are an important platform for disciplinary communication, which guides the development of disciplines and promotes innovation in disciplines. Academic journals were strongly disciplinary at the beginning. For example, the world's earliest academic journal, Philosophical Journal, mainly publishes academic achievements in the field of physics, and the first academic journal in China, Wu Yihui Lecture, published in 1792, mainly publishes achievements in Chinese medicine . This is especially true of academic journals in modern and contemporary universities, such as Xue Xue, Fudan Journal, Literary History and Philosophy, and Tsinghua Journal, etc., whose purpose of running journals explicitly states that it serves the school's discipline construction .
At the same time, talents are the foundation of discipline construction. The natural good connection between academic journals and academic talents provides a more convenient communication channel for the construction of dual first-class disciplines. Academic journals can use the resources of the editorial board and authors of the journals to bring a steady stream of talents to the school's related disciplines. Compared with the way that the school heavily introduces various types of talents, this is a relatively small investment, relatively simple management, and relatively significant results. Way of discipline construction.
4.2 The advancement of "double first-class" construction provides historical opportunities for the development of academic journals. Content is the lifeline of academic journals, and universities are an important source of academic journal content. The scientific research functions of Chinese universities began in the early days of reform and opening up, and continued to develop and grow in the following 40 years. Until recently, they have gradually occupied important positions in awards, projects, and paper publications: ① The three national awards (National Nature The proportion of scientific awards, technological invention awards, and scientific and technological progress awards has gradually increased. In the 1980s, the proportion of colleges and universities receiving awards was about 1/3, and then gradually increased to 1/2, and in recent years, it has accounted for about 2/3 . For example, according to the latest published data, in 2018, the National Natural Science Award won 38 items, and universities completed 29 items in the first unit, accounting for 76%; and 49 technological invention awards, universities completed 38 items in the first unit, accounting for 78%. 137 science and technology progress awards, colleges and universities completed 85 projects in the first unit, accounting for 62%; ② The number of papers representing the output level of scientific and technological achievements also shows the same law. In recent years, the number of papers published by teachers and students in colleges and universities is about It accounts for about 70% of the national total . According to statistics, in 2016, there were about 120,000 excellent papers in China, of which university output accounted for 84.0% ; ③ In recent years, among the projects funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, universities have received 80% of funding from major and key projects. %, 60% .
Scientific research capabilities of universities will be further enhanced. The reform of university personnel system will undoubtedly bring high-quality scientific research results to universities. In the early 1940s, North American universities introduced the "up-or-out" system by drawing on the competition elimination mechanism of enterprises. Tsinghua University began piloting the "up-or-out" system in 1993 , followed by some 985 universities. Follow-up gradually, until the "double first-class" construction starts, based on the actual needs of the "double first-class" assessment and national policy guidance, the "non-promote and go" has ushered in large-scale development in China, and currently about 90% of world-class universities are being built. Colleges and universities have completed the personnel system reform of "getting up or leaving". Although the evaluation standards of the “non-promote and go” employees are different, the core evaluation indicators are still very similar, all pointing to the excellent scientific research ability of the employees (specifically detailed as thesis + project). It is foreseeable that before the real benefits of long-term faculty and personal development, in the era of continued prosperity of the country's economy and steady increase in investment in scientific research, overseas outstanding talents will continue to be remitted to domestic universities through various talent projects. Under the current circumstances, the continuous growth of high-quality scientific research results in universities will be logical. All of these have provided the prerequisites for the development and quality improvement of sci-tech periodicals in universities.
In addition, many journals are named after colleges and universities. The reshuffle of colleges and universities caused by the "dual-first-class" construction will bring major development opportunities for the journals; the "dual-first-class" construction plan that focuses on disciplines but not the whole provides the university journals a transition to professional journals Opportunity; the investment in the "double first-class" construction requires universities to readjust their development thinking, prepare a budget, and provide possible funding for journals; new policy support, resource allocation, and higher-level scientific research results will become the source of development for academic journals And development momentum .
5 Measures to Promote the Construction of "Double First Class" for Academic Journals in Universities
5.1 The government industry management department encourages the "Opinions on Deepening the System Reform of Non-Political Newspaper and Periodical Publishing Units" (Zhongbanfa  No. 19), the "Implementation Measures on the System Reform of the Newspaper and Periodical Editing Department", etc., which explicitly put forward the market for academic journals Reform , but so far only a few universities such as Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics have undergone market-oriented reforms. The market-oriented reform of academic journals in colleges and universities is struggling. Of course, there are practical reasons for market-oriented academic journals to rely on the resources of the journals to raise sufficient funds for running the journals. The importance and understanding of the difficulties in approving journals today, and unwillingness and inability to take the initiative to bring academic journals to market. But the reality is that universities are unwilling to decouple academic journals, but they have not paid enough attention to the development of journals. After all, the role of academic journals in various types of assessment indicators for schools today seems to be at best icing on the cake, and it is difficult to become a "hard currency" to send charcoal in the snow.
President Xi Jinping's "Speech at the Symposium on Philosophy and Social Sciences Work" and "Speech at the National Conference on Science and Technology Innovation, the Academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Ninth National Congress of the Chinese Association of Science and Technology" all explicitly proposed strengthening academic journal construction. Under the background that universities have no incentive to invest and academic circles have expectations, relevant management departments should do something. For example, in the "double first-class" construction assessment index, the quality of academic journals should be used as part of the evaluation of the university's running level, and guide universities to actively increase the resources for running journals. Impact of academic journals in universities. At the same time, on the basis of increased assessment, relevant departments can also increase policy support, optimize the supply of periodical resources, and encourage "double first-class" universities to use the formed first-class academic author groups and academic resources to create new first-class academic journals.
In addition, the current evaluation system also indirectly leads to the passive absence of academic journals in the "double first-class" construction of universities. The use of SCI papers to evaluate dual first-class universities has led to a large number of academic papers flowing out. It is difficult for academic journals in universities to publish important innovative research results of their dominant disciplines, resulting in lower academic academic standards, and lower-level academic journals cannot attract high levels abroad The thesis eventually led to the ineffectiveness of introduction and introduction, which prevented academic journals in universities from making a difference in the construction of first-class disciplines. Therefore, relevant departments can try to improve the academic evaluation mechanism and protect the excellent academic papers written on the land of the motherland to promote the "double first-class" construction of universities and the win-win situation of academic journals. Reform of the academic evaluation system has also been frequent in recent years. For example, in March 2019, the China Association for Science and Technology released the "2019 Implementation Plan for Publishing High-quality Sci-tech Periodicals by Field (Trial)" in an attempt to break the "SCI-only" evaluation system and establish a high-quality sci-tech periodical directory by field. According to the project implementation goals, the difference between this grading catalog and the "Chinese Academy of Sciences Document and Information Center Periodicals Division Table" of the Document Metrology Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences is that the Chinese Academy of Sciences puts together all Chinese and foreign language journals for evaluation. Only evaluate SCI journals. Another example: Beginning in 2018, the Chinese Academy of Sciences encouraged academicians to publish one of the ten representative works in China's own magazines ; the Ministry of Education released the "On Cleanup, Papers, Hats, Titles, "Only education, awards only" Notice of special action. " It is foreseeable that the fires of these stars will eventually form the trend of Ebara.
5.2 In-depth participation of colleges and universities in reform The school management department should fully recognize that academic journals and the school's "double first-class" construction are a community of shared destiny for mutual benefit and win-win, and should avoid the inappropriate understanding of academic journals as non-core peripheral sectors. Give support and put a heavy burden on the assessment. Some double first-class universities have been at the forefront, and their experience has strong reference value. For example, Tsinghua University has issued "Several Opinions of Tsinghua University on Deepening the Reform of the Scientific Research System and Mechanism" and proposed "encouraging the establishment or hosting of high-level academic journals with international influence and increasing the number of journals entering the main literature search such as SCI and SSCI". With the support of a series of institutional mechanisms, 11 English science and technology journals published by Tsinghua University Press cover 10 of the university's 30 first-class disciplines in science and technology. Another example is that Shanghai University has specifically explored the relationship between academic journals and the school's "double first-class" construction, and some journals have been included in the "three-year construction plan for first-class disciplines" .
Talents make careers, and schools should pay attention to the issue of academic journal editors' low professional identity . The direct reason for the low professional identity is that, under the current framework, editors are defined as non-core positions in colleges and universities. As a result, the related issues of editors will not attract the attention of the school, and there will be no channels to resolve them. Occurrence of job burnout and weak service consciousness of "double first-class" construction. For example, the current evaluation of editors' professional titles is still based on the assessment of teachers. There is no direct connection with the quality of the journal. Instead, it is more to assess whether a paper has been published in a professional journal and whether there is a corresponding level of research. project. Even if the assessment requirements are met, they cannot necessarily be hired, because the employment indicators should be reserved for teachers in core positions, rather than editors and assistants. Moreover, many colleges and universities' editing series do not even have a positive senior title. The key to fostering a high-quality editorial team is policy encouragement. Schools should take the opportunity of "double first-class" construction and give policies in the revision and reform of various rules and regulations. You can't just want the horse to run fast and the horse not to graze. Let the editors calm down and work with peace of mind.
Colleges and universities should not only focus on the construction of academic journals and editors, but also solve the shortcomings of the existing evaluation system, such as the evaluation of the scientific research level of students. On April 22, 2019, Tsinghua University studied and implemented the theoretical system of socialist education with Chinese characteristics in the new era, deepened the comprehensive reforms, and promoted the "double first-class" construction. The "Procedures for the Study of Doctoral Degrees for Postgraduates" was promulgated. The basic requirements for publishing a dissertation during the semester are used as a hard indicator for degree application, but the value and innovation of doctoral research results are more emphasized. From the perspective of academic journals, this policy guidance of abandoning the number of papers and publishing journals will make more academic results written in more proficient Chinese and published in Chinese journals. Academic journals in universities may also take advantage of the near-water platform to obtain priority. More high-quality sources.
5.3 The construction of academic journals as a "double first-class" initiative is a major strategic decision made by the country, and it is of great significance to enhance China's higher education level, enhance national soft power and international competitiveness. Academic journals in universities can take full advantage of the historical opportunities of "double first-class" construction of universities, take the initiative and make a difference, give full play to the role of academic journals as incubators, and build academic journals into brand spokespersons and display platforms for first-class disciplines. "Construction makes its due contribution. ① Specialization. To get rid of the past improper practice of pursuing the pursuit of completeness, and to determine the periodical column of colleges and universities, relying on the superiority of universities (quasi-) disciplines, cultivate distinctive columns and orientations of academic journals with distinctive personality. ② Pay attention to internationalization. The ultimate goal of "double first-class" construction is to be world-class. Academic borderlessness determines the obstacles to the internationalization of academic journals [29-30]. Internationalized academic journals can provide school disciplines from China's first-class to world-class development. Support and guide. ③Clustering. Utilize the influence of the school's disciplines, while running the academic journals of the school, try to build a journal group, take the cluster development path , and improve the school's disciplinary power and influence in the industry. Academic journals with large industry influence can lead the construction of journal groups, and academic journals that intend to increase their influence should also actively participate. ④ Differentiation. According to the goal of "double first-class" construction, academic journals of basic disciplines of natural sciences fully consider the development strategies of international competition, and apply development strategies of academic journals that take into account national needs and international comparisons. Humanities and social sciences focus on the development of leading roles in ideology and culture. Strategy.
Academic journals also have an important responsibility for cultivating subject talent. With the advancement of "double first-class" construction, a large number of innovative scientific research results and academic leaders have stood out. Excellent scientific research results are the foundation for the existence of academic journals. Therefore, academic journals should actively maintain close contact with these authors, do a good job in the construction of academic author echelon, and ensure the quality of journal content. At the same time, in the "double first-class" construction, the editor's subjective initiative should also be brought into full play. Editing and publishing is an important second-level discipline under the disciplines of journalism and communication. Peking University, Wuhan University, and Beijing Institute of Printing have related majors. When emphasizing academic editing, it should be a combination of editing business ability, editing theory level, and journal business. In addition to using the edited academic journals to serve the construction of "double-class", editors should also make a difference. For example, on the basis of strong business abilities, editors of academic journals can also use the thesis writing skills accumulated in their work to open academic paper writing instruction classes to attract graduate electives and improve students and teachers' ability to write academic papers. It can also provide valuable research directions for scientific researchers based on the situation of receiving manuscripts and the latest development trends in related fields.
6 Conclusion The superposition of the four world powers, world-class universities, world science and technology centers, and world academic journal centers lies in their deep coupling, which promotes each other and is interdependent. The "double first-class" construction provides strong support for comprehensively improving the international competitiveness of Chinese universities. As an academic window and scientific research platform for colleges and universities in China, academic journals in our country should play a bridge role in cultivating and promoting the development of advantageous disciplines and cultivating high-tech scientific talents in this reform and development trend. Government industry management departments, universities, and academic journals should take advantage of the "dual-first-class" construction opportunity to create a world-class academic journals group, so that academic journal publications in colleges and universities and the "dual-first-class" construction work together and resonate.
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