New Opportunities for the Development of Chinese Sci-tech Periodicals: On the Policy Highlights and Implementation Suggestions of "Opinions on Deepening the Reform and Cultivation of World-Class Sci-tech Periodicals"
Abstract [Objective] To accurately grasp the spirit of "Opinions on Deepening Reform and Cultivation of World-Class Scientific and Technological Periodicals" (hereinafter referred to as "Opinions"), to promote the implementation of the "Opinions" and to promote the development of Chinese scientific and technological periodicals.
[Methods] Study the full text of "Opinions", sort out the policy highlights, and put forward implementation suggestions based on the development status of China's sci-tech periodicals and related research results.
[Results] The Opinions have many bright spots: Chinese and English journals work together to build two major infrastructures: "Big Data Center" and "Publishing Platform"; implement classification and evaluation, homogeneous and equivalent use of Chinese and foreign journals, encourage innovative mode of publication, and clarify Specialized optimization guidance and group operation direction, using the world's perspective to plan the road of international development. In the implementation of the "Opinions", it is recommended to provide sufficient policy supply, establish an accurate and systematic basic database of sci-tech periodicals, scientifically compile a sci-tech periodical catalog, define world-class sci-tech periodicals as soon as possible, and formulate inclusive policies.
[Conclusion] The publication of "Opinions" provides new opportunities for the development of Chinese sci-tech periodicals. Periodicals of all types and levels should benchmark world-class scientific and technological journals and formulate development plans and implementation plans that are in line with their actual conditions, under the premise of accurately grasping the spirit of the "Opinions."
Keywords: sci-tech periodicals; world-class; policy highlights; periodical reform; periodical management; periodical evaluation August 16, 2019 The full text was jointly issued by the four departments of the China Association for Science and Technology, the Central Propaganda Department, the Ministry of Education, and the Ministry of Science and Technology. This is an important document to implement the spirit of the Fifth Meeting of the Central Committee of Comprehensive Deepening Reform on November 14, 2018. It took more than 8 months to publish the full text, which shows the importance the country attaches to the Opinions. "Opinions", as a programmatic document, is self-evident in its significance to promote the reform and development of Chinese sci-tech periodicals. The introduction of the "Opinions" aims to solve the problem that China's scientific and technological journals are "big but not strong" and lag behind the level of scientific and technological development, "consolidate the technological and cultural foundations for marching into the world's scientific and technological power" , master the right to speak internationally, and promote China's transition from A major country in sci-tech journals is moving towards a strong sci-tech journal. At the same time, the "Opinions" will also become an important basis for Chinese science and technology periodicals to be benchmarked internationally, deepen reforms, adjust development strategies, and restructure publishing models. This article attempts to interpret the "Opinions", sort out and summarize policy highlights, so as to be able to accurately grasp the spiritual essence. Based on this, combined with relevant research results and the actual situation of Chinese sci-tech periodicals, put forward implementation suggestions to promote the implementation of the "Opinions" and promote the development of Chinese sci-tech periodicals.
1 Policy highlights
As a programmatic document in the field of sci-tech periodicals in China , "Opinions" has both a theoretical direction and a practical level of operability. At the same time, it also answers a series of questions faced in the development of sci-tech periodicals. Throughout the text, there are many bright spots.
1.1 Highlight 1: Classification and implementation of policies, Chinese and English journals collaborated and the "Opinions" proposed that the "Chinese Science and Technology Journals Excellence Action Plan" be implemented, and the "Key Construction Periodicals Catalog" be compiled while strengthening and strengthening a batch of forward-looking layout batches It is also necessary to "optimize and upgrade Chinese scientific and technological journals and prosper science journals." It can be seen that the key construction journals include Chinese journals, answering the question of “whether to cultivate and support English science and technology journals in the cultivation of world-class science and technology journals”, and also responded to “should not place too much emphasis on the establishment of English science and technology journals” , The call for "adhering to both Chinese and English"  is conducive to promoting the development of Chinese scientific and technological journals and enhancing cultural self-confidence; this time, the "key catalogue of construction journals" has not only made breakthroughs in categories, but also made breakthroughs in numbers, making more Many Chinese science and technology journals have been selected and enjoyed the policy bonus.
In addition, the goal of cultivating world-class science and technology journals is clear, and the implementation path is clear. The Opinions not only provide an action plan, point out the construction goals, directions, and principles for the next 5 or 15 years, but also give an implementation roadmap  and clear training objects, which are highly operable. . In terms of layout, it is necessary to "select a batch, create a batch, upgrade a batch, promote a batch", and refine and strengthen China's basic and advantageous disciplines, including journals in the fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry, geosciences, life, materials, and medicine; Founding of journals in emerging cross-cutting and strategic frontiers such as information, manufacturing, energy environment, space, marine and biomedicine, to fill the "blank" of Chinese science and technology journals in the world journal group, corresponding to the country's basic research direction ; Refining and strengthening professional and comprehensive Chinese science and technology journals, and taking the path of "professionalization"; through "digital and all-media integration", the goal of building science popularization journals-"building a market-competitive science popularization journal cluster".
1.2 Highlight 2: The construction of the "big data center" and "publishing platform" two infrastructures "Opinions" clearly proposed to build a "big data center" for scientific journal articles and a "publication platform" for digital knowledge services. This is a major foundation project that sci-tech journals have been waiting for for a long time. It is an important guarantee to strengthen China's sci-tech discourse power, realize the digitization and internationalization of Chinese sci-tech journals, and improve the management level. Cultivating world-class scientific and technological journals and establishing a Chinese literature retrieval and evaluation system are the supporting conditions for establishing an innovative national knowledge system . The "Big Data Center" in the plan should be different from the existing small "Data Centers" in China, but look at the whole world and build a public platform covering "World Science and Technology Paper Citation Database, Expert and Scholar Database, and Sci-tech Journal Application Data". Based on this "publishing the Global Innovation Index", speaking with facts and speaking with data is an important basis for ensuring the "weight" of discourse and mastering the "right to speak".
Compared with foreign sci-tech journal publishing platforms, China still lacks heavyweight and national-level platforms . Sci-tech periodicals have long called for a large-scale, national-level "publishing platform." Compared with the world-class scientific and technological journals, it can be found that a high-quality "publishing platform" is the "standard configuration" of international first-class scientific and technological journals. Only when the Chinese have their own digital publishing platform can they take the initiative in their own hands and have the basic conditions for achieving integrated publishing and knowledge service transformation. "Borrowing out to sea" is subject to people; "Shipbuilding out to sea" will be an inevitable choice . From the current situation in China, although there are some publishing platforms (such as publishing platforms based on industry and large databases, etc.), either they are incomplete, or they are too small, or their data interoperability is poor, and it is difficult to meet scientific and technological journals. Development needs. Therefore, the construction of a national large-scale "publishing platform" that integrates "thesis collection, editing, processing, publishing and dissemination" will provide significant development opportunities for "promoting the digital transformation and upgrading of scientific and technological journals".
1.3 Highlight 3: The implementation of classified evaluation and the evaluation of homogeneous equivalent use of Chinese and foreign journals has always been a topic that cannot be bypassed in the development of Chinese sci-tech journals, which has greatly affected the survival and development of journals. Because different types of sci-tech journals have different positioning, their functions and values are also different. The "Opinions" proposes that different journals should be positioned and typed, and different evaluation criteria should be adopted: basic discipline journals are guided by "original and scientific breakthroughs", and engineering technology journals are guided by "innovation and effectiveness". This evaluation orientation is undoubtedly related to recent national policies (such as the "Interim Measures for the Performance Evaluation of Central Scientific Research Institutions", "Several Opinions of the State Council on Comprehensively Strengthening Basic Scientific Research", and "Opinions on Deepening the Reform of Project Evaluation, Talent Evaluation, and Institutional Evaluation" "The State Council's Notice on Several Measures to Optimize Scientific Research Management and Improve Scientific Research Performance", etc.), can effectively prevent scientific journals from blindly pursuing impact factors, thereby returning to the original intention of running journals, and steadily running science and technology that are compatible with the purpose of running journals Journal.
Achieving "homogeneous equivalence" between Chinese and foreign sci-tech periodicals is another important evaluation guide. The "SCI-only" theory has been the subject of criticism in the academic and publishing circles in recent years, and has become an important reason for the publication of a large number of outstanding scientific research results in foreign scientific and technological journals in China, which has directly led to the lack of "good rice" in Chinese scientific and technological journals. "Opinions" will promote the use of "homogeneous equivalence" of Chinese and foreign scientific and technological journals on the basis of "publishing a grading catalog of scientific and technological journals by field", which will undoubtedly help guide outstanding papers to return to domestic scientific and technological journals and allow scientists to "write the papers in The land of the motherland "can effectively reduce risks and ensure the security of China's scientific and technological information.
1.4 Highlight 4: Encourage innovation in running journals. The background of China's sci-tech journals is different from that in other countries. We must deepen the reform of the management system for sci-tech journals in accordance with the characteristics of China's sci-tech journals and in accordance with China's national conditions. Only by borrowing from and not copying the advanced model of running journals in the West can we truly embark on a scientific way of running journals. The "Opinions" pointed out that we must "walk out of a path for the development of sci-tech periodicals with Chinese characteristics", and actively encourage the exploration of collaborative learning models such as "society + enterprise", "university + enterprise", "scientific research institution + enterprise" and so on. The innovative mode of running journals will stimulate the new vitality of sci-tech periodicals, especially the introduction of enterprises to run journals, which will provide new ideas for the development of sci-tech periodicals. It is foreseeable that with the injection of technology, capital and talents, the practical problems faced by sci-tech journals such as the shortage of professional and technical talents and insufficient funds, and the difficulties faced by digitalization and networkization will be solved. Innovating the mode of running journals, China's sci-tech journals can not only have "ideals and goals", but also "realize ideas and achieve goals".
1.5 Highlight 5: Clear professional optimization guidance and group operation direction optimization guidance-specialization. From a global perspective, professional journals are the norm for sci-tech periodicals, but China's special background for running journals has resulted in the existence of a large number of comprehensive sci-tech journals (such as university journals). The Opinions suggest that to improve the service capabilities of sci-tech periodicals through "specialization construction" means that a large number of comprehensive sci-tech periodicals can try to shift to specialization and establish professional sci-tech periodicals individually or in collaboration; in addition, specialization should also include "Specialization" of the journal. To cultivate world-class scientific and technological journals, we must have internationalized and professional editors, editors, and reviewers. We must "take various forms to strengthen the construction of editorial teams and create conditions to attract high-level international editors and management personnel." This fully reflects The "Opinions" attaches great importance to the professional talents of editing and publishing, and it is expected that there will be supporting policies in the subsequent implementation process.
Operation direction-group. Clustering [9, 10, 11], grouping [12, 13] of sci-tech periodicals, collaborative journals , and joint journals  have been discussed for a long time. A lot of research results have been obtained, but a lot has been gained. Experience. The "Opinions" proposes to promote the "group" of sci-tech periodicals, support the reorganization and integration of "cross-sectoral and cross-regional", and encourage cluster development. It can be seen that "grouping" will become an important direction for the development of Chinese sci-tech periodicals, and it is necessary to "advance clustering and accelerate the transition to grouping". Based on this idea, with the support of national policies, sci-tech periodicals can break through management barriers, break paper restrictions, and carry out various forms of joint publication, cluster publication, and collaborative publication at home and abroad, and continue to grow, strengthen, and build Several "Science Carriers" of Chinese scientific journals.
1.6 Highlight 6: To develop a world-class scientific and technological journal with a global perspective, we must "benchmark the world-class", "plan open cooperation with a global perspective", advance the "internationalization process", and "improve the sci-tech periodicals in China. "International communication and influence", improve "international competitiveness", "build the flagship of international and digital journal publishing", "build a group of internationally competitive brand journals and several publishing groups", and make China "become a world academic exchange" And an important hub for the spread of science and culture. " Only with the international first-class scientific and technological journal "Wang Wrist" can we find the shortcomings and find the direction of our efforts. The full text of the "Opinions" is more than 3,500 words. There are 17 references to "international", 7 references to "global", and 13 references to "world", which fully reflects the determination of Chinese science and technology journals to "go global". To cultivate world-class sci-tech periodicals, we must take a global perspective and use the world's perspective to run excellent international sci-tech periodicals, rather than dig into domestic and industry circles to discuss the development of sci-tech periodicals.
2 Implementation recommendations
The promulgation of the "Opinions" is only the first step, "the focus is still on the work for a long time, seize the key to implementation" . From the top-level design at the national level, to the introduction of supporting policies by various ministries and commissions, to the solid advancement of various functional agencies and management departments, and the full support and cooperation of the organizers of sci-tech periodicals, each link will affect whether the Opinions can be implemented successfully. Whether the goal of cultivating China's world-class scientific and technological journals can be truly achieved. To this end, based on the relevant research results and the reality of Chinese sci-tech journals, several suggestions for implementing the Opinions are put forward.
2.1 Provide adequate policy supply and create a good publishing environment for sci-tech periodicals. The "Opinions" is a programmatic document issued in the context of the disparity between the level of development of sci-tech periodicals in China and the status of major science and technology countries, and "there are obvious disadvantages in the global competition in science and technology." . The implementation process of the "Opinions" will involve science and technology, education, publishing and other fields, universities, scientific research institutions, publishing management, science and technology management departments, as well as social organizations such as societies, associations, and research associations. Therefore, effective coordination and close cooperation from multiple parties are needed. Among them, the most important thing is to create a good publishing environment through a series of policies. Doing a good job in policy supply is an important aspect of the supply-side reform of journals . It is also an important measure to improve the "ecological environment" of sci-tech journals. It is also an important embodiment of establishing a sustainable development system and mechanism. In addition to the implementation plan, various management agencies and functional departments should formulate a series of targeted and operable and practical supporting plans, plans, rules, and methods in accordance with the spirit and implementation plan of the Opinions to promote the implementation of the Opinions as soon as possible. . When formulating policies related to the management reform of sci-tech periodicals, we must not only focus on the overall development of sci-tech periodicals in the world, but also pay attention to China's publishing reality. On the basis of full investigation and trials, we should carefully introduce periodical publishing resource management, Chinese and English periodical layout, and clustering (Group), construction, talent management, periodicals evaluation and other major management policies.
2.2 The establishment of an accurate and systematic basic database of sci-tech periodicals is based on national conditions, facing the world, and the premise of cultivating world-class sci-tech periodicals is to understand "national conditions." Only by knowing the background of Chinese sci-tech periodicals can we carry out scientific "systematic research and judgment" and issue related policies. Although the scientific and technological periodical management department statistics the publication and operation data every year, it is obviously not enough to rely solely on these data when designing the top level.It is also necessary to grasp more accurate and comprehensive actual operating data of scientific and technological journals, such as the digitization level of journals and the effect of media integration. , Funding sources and trends, standardization and standardization, as well as academic quality, author group, communication power, internationalization, personnel, etc. Only by establishing a dynamic basic database can we truly grasp the "national conditions" of Chinese sci-tech periodicals and formulate policies that are in line with the development laws of sci-tech periodicals and the characteristics of Chinese sci-tech periodicals. Therefore, the establishment of an accurate and systematic basic database of sci-tech periodicals should be taken as the basic project for the implementation of the "Opinions" to provide data support for the development of the current key periodicals and the larger sci-tech periodicals in the future.
2.3 One of the tasks of scientifically compiling a grading catalog of sci-tech periodicals is to publish a "grading catalog" of sci-tech periodicals in different fields, and build an evaluation system of sci-tech periodicals that is compatible with the world's science and technology power. At present, the Chinese Association for Science and Technology has started the preparation work  and is steadily advancing. Societies, associations, and research associations should develop scientific evaluation standards and innovate evaluation methods when compiling a "graded directory". A more objective and prudent attitude should be adopted to carry out the "graded directory", which will make outstanding scientific journals truly become China. The "landmark" of sci-tech periodicals leads the development of sci-tech periodicals. In addition, the scope of use of the "hierarchical catalog" must be strictly restricted to prevent the function from expanding. Over the years, the proliferation of "SCI-only", "impact-only factor" and "core-only" has seriously affected the healthy development of Chinese science and technology journals. Therefore, it is necessary to take effective measures to prevent the "hierarchical catalog" from becoming the new standard of "reviewing articles by journal".
2.4 Define world-class scientific and technological journals as soon as possible, and clarify development goals. A scientific and authoritative definition of world-class scientific and technological journals should be given from the national level as soon as possible, and various measurement indicators should be defined in order to determine development goals and refine tasks. Although there have been related discussions [18,19], there is still no clear and authoritative definition of world-class scientific and technological journals. As a programmatic document, the "Opinions" only proposed directional goals and did not give specific indicators. Therefore, we should define world-class scientific and technological journals as soon as possible, and establish an index system and evaluation standards. When selecting indicators, we must have a global perspective and also take care of Chinese characteristics. In principle, social benefits should be taken as the primary criterion for measuring the results of journals, while attention should be paid to their internationalization, influence, dissemination, and academic value, and economic benefits as reference indicators for evaluation. Public interest discussions on scientific and technological journals have been going on for a long time, and there have been many references to marketization of scientific and technological journals, but as a carrier of "recording and disseminating scientific and technological information" and "inheriting human civilization, gathering scientific discoveries, and leading scientific and technological development", scientific and technological journals "Directly reflects the national scientific and technological competitiveness and cultural soft power." Fundamentally speaking, sci-tech periodicals are not commodities  and should be part of the national public welfare undertakings. Economic benefits should not be pursued too much, but social benefits must be given priority.
2.5 Formulate inclusive policies to promote the comprehensive development of Chinese science and technology journals and nurture China's world-class science and technology journals. The near-term goal is to increase the number of journals that rank among the world-class science and technology journals camp, but the long-term goal is to make China's science and technology journals “comprehensive strength” leap forward. The world's first Phalanx has become "an important hub for academic exchanges and the spread of science and culture in the world." It can be seen that although the cultivation of world-class science and technology journals currently only involves a small part of science and technology journals, it is necessary to develop these science and technology journals in the future to lead the common development of other science and technology journals. Therefore, cultivating China's world-class sci-tech periodicals is not a matter of a few journals. It is related to all sci-tech periodicals in China. Based on this, we must start from the overall situation of the development of sci-tech periodicals in China, formulate inclusive sci-tech periodicals development policies , create a good development environment, and give strong support in terms of funds, policies, and talents to consolidate the foundation for development and accumulate development. Motivation to promote the comprehensive development of Chinese sci-tech journals; actively encourage non-selected sci-tech journals under the guidance of national policies, and compare with the conditions that world-class journals should have , explore innovative modes of running journals, explore cluster-based journals, and professional journals path of. The construction of a world-class scientific journal requires a plateau at its peak, and only a broad enough plateau can support more peaks. Even if it is not selected for the five-year "Key Construction Periodicals Catalog", it is necessary to prepare for the realization of the overall development goals of China's science and technology for 15 years and create advanced conditions. "A single flower is not spring.
The level of development of sci-tech journals is related to the country's innovation ability. The publication of "Opinions" is a major event in the field of Chinese sci-tech periodicals and science and technology circles, which will inspire new vitality and help China to move from a publishing power to a publishing power. To implement the Opinions, we must first understand the spirit of the Opinions and grasp new opportunities for development. Through the unremitting efforts of sci-tech journals, build Chinese sci-tech journals that are related to sci-tech competitiveness, sci-tech discourse power, and information security. "Chinese brands", and tell first-class "Chinese stories" with world-class scientific and technological journals.
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