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Research on the Operation Modes of Sci-tech Periodicals of International Professional Publishing Institutions——Taking German Thieme as an Example
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Yan Qun, 1), 2), 3), Liu Peiyi 3), Huang Jia 4)
1) Documentation and Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 33, North Fourth Ring Road West, Zhongguancun, Haidian District, Beijing 100190
2) Department of Library, Information and Archive Management, School of Economics and Management, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 33, North Fourth Ring Road West, Zhongguancun, Haidian District, Beijing 100190
3) China Science and Technology Publishing and Media Co., Ltd. Beijing Zhongke Periodicals Publishing Co., Ltd., 16 Donghuangchenggen North Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100717
4) Georg Thieme Verlag KG, 14 Ruedigerstra? E, Stuttgart 70469, German Abstract [Purpose] The research is equivalent to the publication (or clustering) of domestic sci-tech periodicals, and an international professional publishing institution that publishes some non-English periodicals, analyzes its sci-tech periodicals The operation model and its development experience may be more conducive to the development of Chinese sci-tech periodicals.
[Methods] The methods of website research, literature research, field interviews and other methods were used to obtain the first-line data of the operating mode of Thieme science and technology journals.
[Results] Thieme has made many attempts in user service model, publishing strategy, expanding communication and marketing channels, etc., and has achieved good results, which is worthy of reference for domestic journals.
[Conclusion] Chinese sci-tech journals should fully learn from the good practices of international publishing institutions, promote a demand-oriented mode of running journals, simplify the language change procedures of journals, build a group of academic journals that are conducive to intensive development, motivate young scholars, and encourage them Sci-tech periodicals go out to realize global dissemination, etc., and actively explore in order to advance the construction of world-class sci-tech periodicals in China and realize the large-scale development of sci-tech periodicals in China.
Keywords: professional publishing institutions; sci-tech periodicals; operating mode; Thieme
The promulgation of "Opinions on Deepening the Reform and Cultivation of World-Class Sci-tech Periodicals" heralds the spring of development for China's sci-tech periodicals. "2016-2017 Annual Report of China's Digital Publishing Industry" pointed out that the clustered development of academic journals has become an important way for academic journals to strengthen their strength, promote transformation, and enhance their brands, and has become an important trend of development [1]. However, in the face of the rapid advancement of digital publishing, international publishing institutions have increased their efforts to plunder the world's academic resources. Drawing on the development experience of international sci-tech periodicals publishing groups, it is imperative to advance the construction of world-class sci-tech periodicals in China and realize the scale development of sci-tech periodicals in China.
At present, China's sci-tech periodicals basically continue the mode of small workshops, with extensive operation methods, insufficient integration and innovation, single product form, weak communication ability, and insufficient clustering development momentum. Chinese sci-tech periodicals are mainly Chinese, and they are quite different from the large-scale multinational commercial publishing groups such as Springer-Nature and Elsevier, which publish large-scale English journals. China Science and Technology Publishing and Media Co., Ltd. (Science Press) publishes the largest number of sci-tech periodicals in China, but there are only more than 300 types and less than 100 English periodicals.The Chinese Medical Association sponsors and publishes more than 140 types of periodicals and only 10 English periodicals. I species [2]. In recent years, in addition to the development of comprehensive scientific and technological journal clusters based on publishing units in China, the development model of subject journal clusters is also quite distinctive. The academic journals are mostly based on the cluster of professional academic journals, and the number is generally not large [3], such as China Optical Journal Network (52 journals), Earth and Environmental Science Information Network (178 journals), etc. Chinese and English Periodicals. By the end of 2018, Thieme had published a total of 191 medical and chemical science and technology journals, of which, 90 were in English, 101 were in German, and more than 30 were in SCI (15.7%). According to the development status of sci-tech periodicals in China, the author believes that research such as Thieme has a certain brand advantage, which is comparable to the scale of domestic sci-tech periodicals publishing (or clustering), and the operation mode of sci-tech periodicals of international professional publishing institutions that publish some non-English periodicals. Learning from its development experience may be more beneficial to the development of sci-tech periodicals in China.
Using "Thieme" as the search term, searched on China HowNet and Wanfang Data. A total of 3 Chinese literatures were obtained, which mainly introduced the search method of the Thieme database [4,5,6], but no related scientific and technological periodical operation models were found. Introduction. This article uses the methods of website research, literature research, field interviews and other methods to obtain the first-line data of the operating mode of Thieme science and technology journals. Through the analysis of Thieme publishing profile, user service model, periodical publishing strategy and diversified marketing channels, it summarizes the suggestions for the development of Chinese sci-tech periodicals in order to provide reference.

1 Thieme Publishing Overview

German Thieme was founded in 1886 and is still a family-run publishing house. Thieme specializes in publishing the latest research in medicine and chemistry, serves medical education, and provides high-quality books, journals and online products. In 1887, Thieme acquired the German medical journal "DMW Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift", which is still popular today and is called "Lacent in Germany". As of the end of 2018, Thieme has published a total of 191 medical and chemical science and technology journals.Among them, there are 4 chemical journals and the rest are medical journals, which mainly involve digestive medicine, neurosurgery and neurology, orthopedics, plastic surgery, Radiology, Vascular Medicine. Thieme and the Academic (Association) adopt a flexible cooperative publishing model.Taking English journals as an example, 27% of the journals cooperate with the Academic (Association) to publish journals, providing operational support and assistance to the Academic (Association) journals, and optimizing journals Online functions, improve accessibility, and focus on global promotion to expand the influence of journals.
To comply with the development of open science, meet the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), Horizon 2020, and the German Science Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)) As well as the requirements of Research Councils UK (RCUK) and other organizations, Thieme publishes Open Access (OA) journals according to the needs of the discipline or manuscript. By the end of 2018, Thieme had published 54 OA journals. On the whole, about 30% of the journals are in the OA model, 70% are in the subscription model; 15% of the papers are in the OA model, and 85% are in the subscription model; 10% of their income comes from Article Processing Charges (APC) for OA papers, 90% of revenue comes from subscription fees. OA journals or OA papers will be stored in the electronic resource archive organization CLOCKSS or Portico for a long time, which is convenient for users to access at any time. APC is paid after the manuscript is received. The determination of APC is generally based on the market's acceptable capacity and is 450 ~ 2300 USD per article. Thirty-one OA journals are funded by academic associations or institutions. Some of these journals do not accept APCs for all authors, and some do not accept APCs for members of funding agencies, or APCs with a certain discount for members.

2 user service model

Thieme pays great attention to the content and user experience of the journal, and provides convenience to the two major user groups of authors and readers.This plays an important role in stabilizing the submission volume of the journal, discovering new authors, increasing user satisfaction, and enhancing the stickiness of the journal effect.
2.1 Author-oriented service model 2.1.1 Faster and more effective peer review model In 2017, Thieme Press's chemical journal Synlett editor-in-chief Benjamin List and its editing team pioneered the creation and implementation of a brand new thesis peer review model-Crowd Review [7]. The journal platform gathers 70 ~ 100 reviewers with high academic reputation in the field of organic chemistry, and the editors implement dynamic reviewer review by referees' self-recommendation or editor-in-chief recommendation. Reviewers can decide whether to participate in reviewing manuscripts according to their time and interests, and complete the review of the full text or part of the content within 48 ~ 72 hours [8]. All manuscripts that use Crowd Review are very fast and the comments are fair and deep. Many reviewers review a manuscript and give feedback, which provides the author with deeper and insightful review opinions, which helps the author to improve. Even if the manuscript is rejected, the author will not complain. The Crowd Review Editor will recruit some young scholars to join the Crowd Review.The same industry experts and young scholars can communicate online at the same time, which not only improves the enthusiasm of review experts, but also provides a dialogue and business promotion for young scholars. platform.
2.1.2 "Any You Pay" OA Journal Payment Model The Pay What You Want (PWYW) model, that is, "Any You Pay" [9], is a participatory OA journal pricing mechanism, which completely gives the pricing power to the author, author You can decide how much APC you want to pay, [10] and no matter how much the author pays, the publishing agency will not refuse. This is a publication developed and implemented by Thieme in collaboration with Professor Martin Spann of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München Business School and Professor Klaus Schmidt of the Department of Economics. Pricing scheme [11]. This model is currently used in some of Thieme's newly created OA journals, and it has also eliminated funding barriers for global author publication. The PWYW model provides a flexible funding alternative pricing model in OA publishing, which plays a role in attracting new sources for new journals.
2.1.3 "Any You Can Submit" Paper Submission Mode It is a very tedious thing for the author to modify the submission paper into a format that meets the requirements of the journal. To this end, some Thieme journals such as The Surgery Journal have introduced a Submit How You Want submission mode. That is, "you can vote." Authors are not required to modify the manuscript format when submitting a manuscript, as long as the editor is readable, the editor handles the formatting problem and undertakes the language polishing work to reduce the author's submission pressure and ensure the high quality of the published paper, thereby attracting excellent manuscript sources.
2.1.4 The welfare of young authors should be the most creative in their twenties. Scientists who have won the Nobel Prize in Europe and the United States generally rely on the achievements made around the age of 30 to win prizes [12]. In order to better motivate young scientists to submit contributions to Thieme's publishing journals and cultivate loyal fans of the journals, Thieme has selected some fields to issue "Young Scientist Awards", and some journal editors have participated in organizing Writers Workshops. In 2009, Thieme established the "Young Scientist Award" in the field of thrombosis and hemostasis to reward outstanding young authors who have published papers in Thieme's published journals. Six authors are awarded each year for $ 1,000 each. "The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon" is a prestigious and well-established journal in Germany. It receives about 50% of the submissions from Germany in this field every year. The editor-in-chief of the journal regularly visits scientific research institutions to introduce junior researchers' experience in writing manuscripts, etc., to train young scientists and attract potential manuscript sources. By awarding the "Young Scientist Award" and holding an author forum, attracting young scientists to contribute to the journal has also improved the visibility of the journal and achieved good social response.
In addition, Thieme supports and rewards young women scientists by setting up awards. To support and reward young women scientists who have made outstanding contributions in the field of organic chemistry, Thieme has established the Dr. Margaret Faul Women in Chemistry Award. This award will be selected for the first time in 2019. Once a year, the winners will receive a prize of 5,000 euros. The award is awarded to a young female scientist who has recognized outstanding achievements in the field of organic chemistry and has been independently engaged in chemical research for 15 years, regardless of nationality.
2.2 Reader-oriented service model 2.2.1 Focus on content construction Content construction is the foundation for the development of sci-tech periodicals and the basis for sustainable operation of sci-tech periodicals. Thieme is a completely market-oriented publishing organization, focusing on the quality and readability of content. Thieme's sci-tech journals are more from the perspective of doing a good job of journal content, publishing columns such as Case Report according to readers' preferences, not only considering the development of journals from the perspective of impact factors. Therefore, many journals published by Thieme have a low impact factor, but they are well-known in the industry. Thieme combines the advantages of the book field to publish corresponding journals. For example, Thieme has published student anatomy pocket books and the world-renowned anatomy monograph Atlas of Anatomy for students and medical practitioners at the junior and intermediate levels, and enjoys a good reputation. It also publishes Seminar series journals, such as Seminars in Liver. Disease. The journal invites well-known experts in the field to form an editorial board, and each issue selects a subject topic and publishes a review article, which is highly readable and instructive for junior and intermediate doctors.
2.2.2 Diversified Content Pricing Model At present, database sales are still Thieme's main profit method. 90% of Thieme's revenue comes from database sales and 10% comes from APC of OA journals. Digital publishing opens up the purchasing channels for individual buyers, and makes it easier for individual buyers to purchase products directly from international publishing agencies. Thieme makes different data packages according to the year, different packages are purchased, and the pricing is different. In addition to traditional database, single issue, and single content ordering, Thieme also provides more diversified content sales methods, such as providing copyright sales of papers in the medical field, that is, the distribution rights of some articles involving pharmaceutical companies or certain drugs. Can help produce single-line prints for distribution by pharmaceutical companies.

3 Journal publishing strategies

3.1 Create new journals to gather resourcesThieme keeps up with the development of the discipline and the frontiers of science, combines the resources and reputation of the publishers in books and associations, and creates high-tech journals at a high starting point in time to meet the needs of users to the greatest extent, and to gather as much as possible high-quality scientific research Results. The establishment of a new journal means gathering sources of emerging disciplines, interdisciplinary fields, or subdividing disciplines to expand the volume of manuscript sources, providing knowledge services for the secondary development of content in the later period, and deriving new products, laying the foundation of content and platforms. Thieme has published well-known and established journals in the field of organic chemistry, Synthesis, Synlett, and Synfacts, and launched a new journal, Organic Materials, in 2018, which aims to broaden the field of chemistry and materials.
The "Trickle Down" model is a new publishing model in recent years. Publishing organizations with well-known brand journals, such as Thieme, generally have a large number of manuscripts for brand-name journals. Due to the limited number of journal articles, they can only reject many. Excellent manuscript. In order to keep the manuscript source, when the manuscripts in certain sub-fields are more concentrated, publishing institutions usually set up sister journals around these fields, and usually adopt the OA publishing model. For the newly created OA sister journal, if the rejection of the signature journal meets the requirements of the new journal, the author can transfer the manuscript and review opinions to the new journal after the consent, and the editor of the new journal finally decides whether to publish it. For the author, this mode saves the time for rejection and re-submission and re-review of the manuscript, which provides convenience for the author.For new journals, it guarantees the amount and academic quality of the newly created OA journals. In other words, the overall number of manuscripts has been increased, the amount of resources has been increased, and the company's revenue has been increased. Such as Thieme's Endoscopy International Open, Endoscopy is a top journal in the field of digestive endoscopy. Some high-quality manuscripts will be transferred to Endoscopy International Open after being rejected by Endoscopy.
3.2 Variety of Dynamic Management Periodicals Thieme's sci-tech periodicals rely entirely on market-oriented operations. Through long-term market-oriented operations and competition and cooperation between peers, they continue to grow and develop to fulfill the mission of serving scientific research, while also forming a sustainable development model. Periodical publishing requires long-term investment, but as a market-oriented publishing house, the main purpose of operating a journal is for the sustainable development and profitability of the publishing house. Thieme implements dynamic management of periodicals, and evaluates periodicals on a regular basis. For non-profit journals, priority will be given to adjusting the direction and reorganizing the editorial board; if it still has no effect, the journal will be stopped to reduce waste of resources. Adapt to market changes.
3.3 Flexible change of publishing languages With the development of disciplines and changes in market demand, some non-English journals continue to publish national language content that cannot meet the needs of the international market. International publishing institutions will change the language of journals in a timely manner to achieve better development of journals. Thieme publishes a total of 191 medical and chemical journals, of which 101 are German journals, accounting for more than half. The main market is German-speaking countries and regions. "Ultraschallinder Medizin" was founded in 1980 and has a high reputation in Germany. It soon entered the internationally renowned databases such as SCI and Medline. However, due to language restrictions, the highest impact factor also exceeded 1.2004. In 1949, the journal became the journal of the European Federation of Medical and Biological Ultrasound Societies. Publishing in German would seriously restrict the development of the journal, and it was difficult to shoulder its mission as a journal of the European Federation. To this end, Thieme converted the publication language of the journal to English, with the same title and ISSN number, and added the subtitle European Journal of Ultrasound, which not only inherited and developed the journal, but also adapted to the needs of environmental change.The impact of the journal in 2018 The factor is 4.613.
3.4 In-depth mining of content resources Thieme uses advanced technology to conduct secondary mining of published resources to provide rich online products. Thieme's online product RadCases is a searchable online radiology database consisting of some classic and key cases, providing hundreds of clear, high-quality X-rays to help users understand key findings and identify Correct differential diagnosis-including the most critical diagnosis, and these cases and pictures are from books published by Thieme. At the same time, Thieme is also a publishing organization that focuses on providing visualized products. Many e-products are extracted from journals or books. Electronic navigation is added to enhance the visualization effect. Personalized products are provided for users to facilitate their use.

4 Diversified marketing channels

As the saying goes, "Wine fragrance is not afraid of the alleys", but with the development of society and technological progress, "the fragrance of wine is also not afraid of the alleys." Sci-tech periodicals do not pay attention to publicity and promotion, and it will be difficult for scholars to agree and participate. Thieme attaches great importance to the promotion and marketing of its own brand and products, which are embodied in three aspects: expanding marketing channels, advertising business interactions, and adopting "localization" strategies to open up international markets.
4.1 Expanding Marketing Channels In addition to expanding marketing through itself, Thieme also maintains close contact with distributors or sales representatives around the world to ensure that its products can be promoted to all parts of the world. Thieme's partners are divided into three categories, exclusive distributors, sales representatives and non-exclusive distributors, mainly distributed in academically active countries and regions.
4.2 Advertising Business Interactive advertising is one of the marketing methods commonly used in Thieme journals. In order to better develop the advertising business, journals also continue to strengthen their own brand building, expand the audience, and achieve good win-win development. There is an introduction of Advertising Rates at the obvious position of the homepage of each journal website of Thieme. The pricing of each journal is personalized and not uniform. Generally, different price points will be given according to whether it is a color advertisement (such as black and white printing, standard color printing, four-color printing, etc.) and the size of the layout (such as full page, 1/2 page, 1/3 page, etc.). In addition, the advertisement will clearly indicate the number of prints or circulation of the journal for the company's reference.
4.3 "Localization" strategy In order to open up the international market and expand the international market share, Thieme adopts the "localization" strategy, actively carries out international cooperation business and activities, deeply explores the markets of different countries and regions, and sets up subsidiaries or offices locally. Recruit local staff to achieve a good unification of "Global + Local". Thieme has a total of about 1,000 staff members in 8 offices in New York, Beijing, Delhi, Rio de Janeiro, Stuttgart, and three other cities in Germany. In order to expand the brand's global influence, Thieme opened a new office in Beijing in August 2018 to increase brand promotion in the Chinese market.
In addition, the current competition of similar journals is fierce. Thieme uses “localized” social media to promote the latest published content to target users, regularly publish blog posts, activate social media, attract users, and increase the impact and attention of publications.

5 Suggestions for the development of sci-tech journals in China

5.1 Promote a demand-oriented journalistic model. China's sci-tech journal market still has traces of the planned economy, and many journals are still in the traditional extensive operation stage [13]. In the topic selection planning, editing, and publishing, they are still oriented to editors' needs. Less consideration is given to reader needs and author services. Promoting the market-oriented mode of running journals requires scientific and technological journals to plan the content of journals on the basis of being close to market needs and meeting readers' needs, to quickly publish the latest research results, and to develop journal characteristics. Adjust the direction and business scope of journals according to market changes, and promote the healthy and sustainable development of sci-tech journals.
Thieme creates new journals in a timely manner according to the development of disciplines or the submissions of existing journals, and regularly evaluates the published journals. The journals without profit and development prospects will be stopped. In China, there were only eight English scientific journals with CN number approved in 2018, 25 in 2017, and 12 in 2016. Springer-Nature established 30 new journals in 2017. The slow growth of the number of Chinese science and technology journals is far from meeting the needs of the rapid development of science and technology in our country, which seriously affects our international discourse right. In addition, the quality and quantity of China's papers are in the forefront of the world in a large number of subject areas, and the periodical group is relatively large, but China's sci-tech journals are blank [14]. It is imperative to implement a market demand-oriented mode of launching journals and return to the commodity attributes of journals.
5.2 Opening the way to change the language of journals. Many established Chinese science and technology journals in the country have encountered “ceilings” because of language problems, or are too difficult to develop homogenization. These journals are facing language changes in search of better Development needs. However, in China, changing the publishing language requires the submission of a sufficient feasibility plan and various materials. Even if the approval is approved, the CN number and ISSN number will be changed at the same time. Bring a lot of inconvenience to the publisher. Thieme's way of changing the language of journal subtitles is worth learning from.
5.3 Build a group of periodicals that are conducive to intensive developmentThieme adopts a clustered development model of sci-tech periodicals, which separates editing from publishing, refines the division of labor, the editor is responsible for the quality of the manuscript, the publisher is responsible for the overall planning and promotion of the journal, and the production team coordinates Complete specific production tasks such as typesetting. Refining the division of labor and doing what they are good at is more conducive to improving the efficiency of periodical publishing. However, China's sci-tech periodicals run in a single mode, with one person serving multiple roles, and there is no separation between content production and market operations. In view of China's current system and mechanism, it is recommended to start with the intensification of the production link to realize the division of labor, editing and publishing, and then promote the clustered development of Chinese sci-tech periodicals.
5.4 Mobilize the enthusiasm of young scholars to run journals. In terms of cultivating authors and forming editorial committees, Thieme reduced the competition with large publishers and dared to use young scholars, including female scholars, as backbone editors to become young and young scholars' academic career development partners. When young scholars become well-known experts in the subject, most of them will still maintain good relations with the original journals. China's "Journal of Aeronautics" and "Science in Science: Chemistry" in China's attempt to form a young editorial board also proves that journalists should abandon the traditional thinking of selecting editorial board members and form a young editorial board. It plays an important role in helping journals develop and increase their influence [15,16].
5.5 Encourage journals to go global to achieve global dissemination. For the global market, "localized" teams and experience are very important. Thieme has established professional teams in important regions to expand the scope of business and accelerate the dissemination of scientific research results. With the strengthening of China's economic and technological strength, we have the strength to look overseas. Taking Light: Science & Applications as an example, as of 2018, offices have been set up in Rochester, Singapore, Paris, and Sydney [17]. The "localized" operating strategy has played an important role in broadening the source of journal contributions and increasing their influence. effect. China's strong sci-tech periodicals and publishing units can try to set up offices abroad to actively expand overseas markets, gather overseas resources, and expand the international market share of sci-tech periodicals in China.

6 Conclusion

China has a long way to go to promote the construction of world-class sci-tech periodicals. While summing up its own development experience, it must also pay attention to learning from foreign advanced practices. Thieme's publishing scale is comparable to that of some domestic publishing institutions or subject journal platforms, and there are also non-English journals published.Its practices in user service models, publishing strategy models, and expansion of communication and marketing channels are worthy of us. Reference learning.
Author Contribution Statement:
Yan Qun: Write a thesis, revise it and finalize it;
Peiyi Liu: Review the paper and propose amendments;
Huang Jia: Provide reference materials and revise the source of the paper: http://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/H8WobKMzRJghNRTZGB4R9Q

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