Jin Cheng 丨 Decentralized or Intensive: Thoughts on the Marginalization of University Academic Journals
The academic journal (or editorial department) is an academic communication organization, and the journal is the carrier core of this organization. In the new era of all-media transformation under the integration of media, the status of periodical publishing units originally established by the state as institutions has become increasingly marginalized in universities. This article attempts to clarify the understanding of the publishing work of academic journals, abolish the "small, weak, and scattered" ills of academic journals, and build a new cluster development pattern of "good, strong, and big" academic journals, so as to promote the construction of national cultural soft power and explore academic The journal truly serves the development path of national knowledge innovation, scientific and technological innovation and cultural innovation.
How do academic journals (groups) of a university develop and reform? Is it scattered or intensive? Is it "single fight" or "cluster operations"? This is not a simple issue of the small publications of the periodical publishing institutions, but a question of the renewal of ideological concepts, that is, whether it responds to the country's major adjustment and deployment of press and publication work, whether it keeps up with the trend of media integration and development, and whether it agrees with academic journals. Publishing industry, professionalism and (academic journalist) community.
In March 2018, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China issued the "Deepening the Reform Plan of the Party and State Institutions", in order to strengthen the party's centralized and unified leadership of news and public opinion work, strengthen the management of publishing activities, and develop and prosper the socialist publishing cause with Chinese characteristics. The responsibility of publishing management is transferred from the State Administration of Press, Publication, Radio, Film and Television to the Central Propaganda Department, and the Central Propaganda Department manages the press and publication work in a unified manner. Subsequently, the provinces (municipality) actively responded to the actual implementation and adjusted the transfer of press and publication functions. This institutional reform is the party's and the state's strategic deployment of press and publication work, and is one of the important measures to do a good job in strengthening and expanding the press and publishing industry. Vigorously spread self-confidence, theoretical self-confidence, institutional self-confidence, and cultural self-confidence in the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era. Press and publication have an inescapable historical mission and realistic responsibility.
As we all know, academic journals, as an important carrier for building up cultural soft power, are a symbol of national academic cultural soft power, and also an important part of the national think tank for science and technology. They play an important role in spreading the "four confidences". Therefore, the competent organizer of academic journals should actively respond to the party and the state's important deployment of journalism and publication work, recognize the development trend of journalism and publications, effectively perform the function of journal publication management, and effectively implement the reform of journalism and publication. The problem of "small, weak, and scattered" journals, breaking the long-standing workshop-style structure of academic journals, and merging and intensifying the development of academic journals of different disciplines or specializations. It is a need for the country to promote the transformation of all-media and also a periodical. An inevitable choice for long-term development.
Development Dilemma of Academic Journals under the Management of Decentralized Model
For a long time, China's periodical management has implemented a press and publication approval system, which is a top-down vertical management by the government's press and publication management department. The biggest feature of this periodical management system is comprehensive, centralized, efficient, and compliant. The periodical editing department or periodical agency is a periodical publishing unit stipulated by the state, and is a press and publishing agency with a constitutional function granted by the state. This national publishing management system, for the periodical organizer, should urge the publishing unit to operate in accordance with the rules, characteristics, and dissemination mechanism of the publishing industry, and to grant publications in accordance with national policies and regulations such as the "Regulations for the Administration of Publication" and "Regulations for the Administration of Periodical Publication". Units' rights to maximize the journal's communication function and "hematopoiesis function", to allow academic journals to dock with the country's areas of knowledge innovation, scientific and technological innovation and cultural innovation according to its positioning, purpose, goals and characteristics, classified guidance, self-discipline management, overall planning Planning and coordinated development.
In 2012, the General Administration of Press and Publication clearly stated in the "Implementation Measures on the System Reform of the Newspaper and Periodical Editing Department" that the Party and government departments, democratic parties, people's organizations, industry associations, social organizations, institutions, and state-owned enterprise-sponsored editorial departments sponsored , Merged into the department's own press and publication media enterprise; if there is no press, publication and media enterprise in this department, and there are three or more newspapers and magazines edited by its supervisor, it can be merged and established with the approval of the General Administration of Press and Publication 1 newspaper and magazine publishing company; if there are not enough 3 newspapers and magazines in charge of hosting the newspaper and magazine editing department, they are merged into other news, publishing and media companies . The promulgation of this measure aims to eliminate the "small, weak, and scattered" ills of journals, promote the development of journals in a cluster-intensive way, and support national sponsors to do a better, stronger, and larger periodical of journals. .
However, the reality is that the phenomenon that the competent organizer owns three or more journals (agents) in the editorial department is still outstanding. Under the decentralized management model, with the impact of the Internet on traditional media and the development trend of media integration, its disadvantages are becoming increasingly apparent. Individual journals that are "small, weak, and scattered" are facing the fiercely competitive academic journal field. It's hard, hard, and big, "which is mainly manifested in the following aspects.
First, "small". Due to the small number of full-time journals in most editorial departments, there are generally only one to three full-time journals with different preparations, which cannot form a scale or volume. Some editorial departments even run part-time journals for teachers. Because the university evaluates teachers and professional and technical personnel on a post-by-post basis, teachers' assessment positions are not in publishing institutions. Teachers do part-time editing work that should be performed by professional and technical personnel, and the effectiveness of their work will be greatly reduced. , Can not guarantee to achieve the long-term goals and quality improvement goals of journal development. Many business operations of the journal editing department cannot be planned or continued, such as soliciting advertisements, talent training, and holding seminars, etc. The "blood-generating function" of the journal itself is gradually lost.
Second, "weak." Due to the lack of scale of most journal editorial departments, the overall strength to promote the development of journals is weak, and the funding for running journals is stretched. Many journals rely on collection fees to support their survival. This survival method is not only detrimental to the journal's image, but also detrimental to the long-term journal Development, unable to adapt to the fierce academic competition and market competition of periodicals, unable to withstand the long-term "wind and waves," nor to attract or retain outstanding talents to engage in journal publishing for a long time. Although some journals enter the so-called "core journals" directory envied by the industry, the "weakness" caused by "small" will inevitably affect the stability of the quality of the journals. In addition, the editing team is mostly in a state of inaccessibility and has not formed a stable publication. Talent echelon. Once the editor or person in charge is changed due to 【191566.com】
istrative management, the development of the periodical may go astray, or blindly follow the trend, and the status of the core periodical is also at stake.
Thirdly, "San". Because most editorial departments are scattered in the second-level colleges or scientific research institutions in charge of the organizer, the working philosophy goals of the college (or scientific research institution) are different from those of the journals, and the financial management goals are different (funding and manpower of the college or scientific research institution). It is impossible to run journals beyond boundaries), the requirements for employment are different, and the colleges (or scientific research departments) that each journal relies on have different management concepts for the journals, resulting in a variety of micro-management systems for the same university journals. Some even run counter to the relevant regulations of national periodical publication management, and there is a phenomenon of offside or absence or dislocation between the management department and the publishing unit. Due to this current management method that does not comply with industry rules, the independent development and self-discipline management mechanism of a single periodical publishing unit according to the characteristics of the communication and industry rules cannot be fully exerted, and it is difficult to implement and guarantee the periodical input system, guarantee system, and incentive system. Journal publishing is an industry with distinctive characteristics. The academic operating rules of journals and the operating rules that take into account the market are different from the rules for talent training in colleges. It may inevitably produce unnecessary contradictions due to different professional (industry) concepts. Originally, the work of the publishing industry would be caught in unnecessary personnel and human disputes due to this unscientific management method, and even the phenomenon of serious violations of the layman's internal work will occur, unless relying on the management department to take "inaction" to manage Only departments and publishing units can be at peace.
Some people may argue that some journals perform well on their own. The existence of this phenomenon is a minority relative to the entire journal community. It is a human factor rather than a guarantee factor for the policy system of the country or the competent organizer: extraordinary ability, strong economy, broad connections, or spiritual persistence, etc. It has achieved enviable performance among peers. However, it is doubtful whether this minority phenomenon can be inherited for a long time, because various non-state or competent organizer policy and system level uncertainties (such as changing the periodical director) may at any time allow good performance to be paid for. East stream. What's more, the long-standing common problems of “small, weak, and scattered” in most academic journals are common. Originally, equal academic journals were caused by the “alienation” brought about by core journals and the vicious circle of academic ecological environment, which led to a small number of journals. Hengqiang, the weaker Matthew effect of most weak journals.
Feasible Strategies for Periodical Intensive Development
The press and publishing industry is an important part of the party's cause. It is a very strong party spirit and a highly professional and professional job. Academic journals are an important part of publishing work, and they are public communication platforms (public instruments) for academic and disciplinary majors at home and abroad. The academic journals (groups) of a university are oriented to scholars of the same discipline and specialty in the country and international counterparts, rather than a affiliated institution or a single resource available to a college or department (or research base). Only from the perspective of overall communication, can we clearly realize the value, role, and significance of academic journals to a university's academic peers at home and abroad. Therefore, the establishment of an academic community management organization of an academic community is the basic guarantee for the sound operation and coordinated development of academic journals. Its role is to form a cluster effect of the journals of the host organizer, overcome the shortcomings of "small, weak, scattered" and "single fight alone", completely change the pattern of dispersed and fragmented communication forces, condense the power, and join forces with different host organizers. Focus on changing the small and scattered situation of national academic journals. For example, in 2016, the Science Communication Bureau of the Chinese Academy of Sciences released the "13th Five-Year Plan" for scientific journals of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and in 2018 formulated the "Integrated Management Measures for the Periodical Editorial Department of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Trial)" and other related planning methods. Shanghai University Periodicals Centralized and Intensive Management of Periodicals of the University, making the Periodicals an important window to show the academic construction of schools and regional common disciplines as a whole. It forms a community of school running, periodicals, unified human resources, publishing business and financial management. The direction, goals and vision are clear. At the same time, handle several relationships, "One is the relationship between scientific research institutes, colleges and universities and the periodical editing department; the second is the relationship between publishing groups (publishers) and the periodical editing department; the third is the relationship between international and domestic journals. To be overcome The shortcomings of departmental ownership, fragmentation, decentralization of power, and a small rich man in the editorial department set up a large-scale periodical publishing group to focus on changing the small and scattered issue of China's sci-tech periodicals publishing .
Therefore, the author believes that the goal of academic journal reform should follow the laws of the publishing industry, respect the rules of communication, and take the publisher and the journal (editing department) as a community of academic organizations to form a joint operation at the level of the host organizer. When the competent organizer owns multiple journals, how to strengthen the guidance on the classification of journals in accordance with the relevant regulations on the publication management of national journals, strengthen the self-discipline management capabilities of journals, maximize the journal's relatively independent and autonomous transmission function and its own "hematopoiesis function", and correct Academic journals are merely a phenomenon of “alienation” of academic and professional title services, continuously improving the overall level and strength of journals serving national knowledge innovation, scientific and technological innovation, and cultural innovation, and giving better play to the “leading” and “long tail” roles of academic journals. It is a prominent problem that needs to be solved now. To this end, the author makes the following statement.
The first is to do a good job of journals and establish a physical organization of the journal group. Institutional mechanisms are the key to a successful career. The competent organizer should earnestly perform the duties assigned by the national press and publication management regulations and promote the intensive development of periodicals. "Intensive" was originally a term in the economic field. The original meaning was based on the full use of all resources, more concentrated and rational use of modern management and technology, and the full use of the positive effects of human resources to improve work efficiency and efficiency. A form. Under the increasingly fierce competition environment of academic journals, to do a good job of the basic work of academic journals is to break the barriers of the editorial department of the journals in charge of the organizer, carry out substantial integration of personnel, finance, and business and share resources, and gradually realize editing Specialized division of labor, separation of editing and operations, unification of human resources management, publishing business management, and financial operations management to improve the efficiency of intensive aggregation. Effectively giving play to the role of periodicals in linking Chinese and foreign readers, authors, experts and scholars, and using new publishing media technology and modern management technology to efficiently and reasonably allocate journal resources, complement each other's advantages, and develop in a group, can it have a core competitiveness that goes far.
Efforts should be made to change the management mode of periodicals scattered in various departments or scientific research institutions and the dilemma of the professional journalists' marginalization. Re-integrate a single journal publishing unit, that is, manage three or more academic journals collectively, set up a physical journal management institution at the school level, be led by the host institution ’s competent school, and select 2 to 3 from the full-time staff of the editorial department The chief editor or the person in charge of the editorial department representing the disciplines assists to centrally manage all the journals of the university. Academic organization is an academic organization that serves various journals and cooperates with each other to establish a school's academic image. The purpose is to highlight the overall media advantage of the school and "cluster operations" to create professional brand journals for different disciplines at home and abroad. Establish the overall image of the competent organizer.
The second is to strengthen journals and provide basic (basic) inputs for journals. Making a strong journal depends on the investment of people, money and materials. The first is to determine the number of staff, implement an open personnel management system, and strictly enforce the qualifications of journalists and publishers. People are the decisive factor. In some universities, the periodical publishing units have never had a fixed number of editors, and the staff is very aging. They are not connected, and they tend to entertain themselves and die. At the same time, it is also necessary to consider the characteristics of the discipline and select outstanding scholars—disciplinary leaders who are enthusiastic about journals and have both moral and talents to join the editorial board, and make use of the joint strength of scholars and media publishers to jointly promote the healthy Orderly development. The second is to comply with national laws and regulations on press and publication management, ensure necessary funding for running journals, and change the status quo of academic journals relying on collecting page fees to survive. The third is to ensure necessary office conditions and technical equipment. It is difficult for a clever woman to cook without rice, and the basic human and property security conditions for the periodical development of the periodical group are indispensable.
Finally, it is necessary to enlarge the periodical and establish and improve the periodical guarantee system and incentive system. Make full use of the preferential taxation and operating policies and regulations granted by the state for press and publication. Within the scope of the policy, the periodical organizer and legal person can entrust the periodical agency (center) to be authorized as a legal person to carry out legal business activities with the periodical as the core carrier. And personnel employment, gradually reduce the various sponsors' input to the journal (except for the protection of policies and systems), and deepen the reform of the institutional mechanism of the academic journal group to "do a good job, stronger and bigger". In this regard, the advanced experience of foreign journal groups (groups), such as Springer Publishing, Elsevier Publishing Group, and Cambridge University Press, can be used for reference. On the one hand, the dominance of the top international journals has been further consolidated, and sub-journals have been continuously subdivided to form a strong cluster development. On the other hand, most of the world-renowned journals have launched online journals at the same time, especially OA journals. Human eyeball. "There is a history and a specialty in the art industry." It is a wise move for career development for industry professionals to do industry professional things.
At the same time, it should be noted that due to the different disciplines, specialties, industry backgrounds and historical developments of various journals, the overall integration of journals should determine a roadmap and timetable, and implement them step by step in accordance with the journal's short-term, medium- and long-term goals. In the case of a serious shortage of long-term funding for the sponsor's journals, the recent development goal is to "simplify 【191566.com】
istration and decentralization". Under the framework of centralized management, give full play to the professional advantages of professional journalists and the initiative of journalists. , Enthusiasm and creativity, implement a unified management model of the responsibility of the journal editorial department or magazine, accumulate early development funds; mid-to-long-term development goals are overall planning, overall integration, complementary advantages, divergence of manuscript sources, coordinated development, and adhere to The academic journal group truly serves the development path of national knowledge innovation, scientific and technological innovation and cultural innovation.
In short, the key to overcoming and changing the marginalization of academic journals in universities is to renew the concept of the host organizer, break through the traditional inertia of thinking about the status quo, be brave, and innovate, in response to the party and the state ’s strategic deployment of press and publication work. The academic journal's dissemination function and its own "hematopoiesis function" will be brought into full play, and both the academic rules and the market rules will be followed, and practical actions will be taken to effectively solve the workshop-type dysfunction of the journals "small, weak, and scattered", and to build an academic journal "good "Strong, strong, big" cluster development new pattern, create a high-level digital platform for academic journals, so as to truly promote the improvement of national cultural soft power, and play a strong role of academic journals truly serve the country's knowledge innovation, scientific and technological innovation and cultural innovation.
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