Draft | Sprint "World-Class Scientific and Technological Journal" Must Develop Four Abilities
The definition of "world-class science and technology journal" is proposed, which can lead the development direction of global basic innovation, can publish the foundational and basic original innovation achievements of the discipline; can lead the development direction of global technological innovation, and can lead the direction of technology application research and industry development; A journal that can quickly disseminate innovation results and is widely recognized by peers around the world and has strong sustainable development capabilities. A detailed discussion was made on the leading role and comprehensive ability performance of world-class scientific and technological journals, and pointed out that the first-class journals have comprehensive capabilities in six aspects, including first-class frontier problem grasping ability and leading ability. Sprinting China's science and technology journals into "world-class science and technology journals", put forward four major capacity-building goals, that is, we must strengthen construction in terms of strategic planning capabilities, content quality assurance capabilities, publishing and communication capabilities, and business development capabilities.
Keywords world-class scientific and technological journals; leading role; comprehensive ability; development strategy
1 BackgroundThe China Science and Technology Association, the Ministry of Publicity, the Ministry of Education, and the Ministry of Science and Technology jointly issued the Opinions on Deepening the Reform and Cultivation of World-Class Sci-tech Periodicals (hereinafter referred to as `` Opinions '') on August 5, 2019, which is the implementation of 2018 In November of this year, the Party Central Committee comprehensively deepened the spirit of the Fifth Meeting of the Reform Committee and a programmatic document to promote the reform and development of Chinese sci-tech periodicals. The "Opinions" believes that China has become a major periodical country, but lacks influential world-class scientific and technological journals. It has obvious disadvantages in the global competition in science and technology. It is necessary to further deepen reform and optimize the development environment. Therefore, we must speed up the construction of world-class science and technology journals, and consolidate the scientific and technological and cultural foundations for marching into the world's science and technology power.
Sci-tech periodicals have been around since the birth of 1665, and they have not stopped growing vigorously through various eras such as the industrial revolution, industrial modernization, knowledge economy, and Internet economy. It achieves innovative value evaluation and initial certification of important results through peer review; through standardized publishing, disseminates innovative knowledge and scientific research progress, controls academic discourse power, and leads discipline development. In the past 100 years, more than 80% of the world's scientific and technological innovation achievements were first published in scientific and technological journals . At present, there are more than 64,000 sci-tech periodicals in the world. New journals are constantly emerging, and publications are constantly innovating. It still cannot fully meet the needs of human society for scientific and technological knowledge. Western developed countries attach great importance to sci-tech periodicals as an important supporting force for the construction of national innovation systems. They are the vane and booster for leading and promoting innovation. As a result, a large number of well-known brand journals have emerged, occupying the leading position of journals in various disciplines today. Status.
Therefore, in order to respond to the strategic goals proposed by the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, to build China into a strong country in science and technology innovation, to become the world's major scientific center and innovation highland, it is necessary to have a number of science and technology journals that can play a leading and leading role in the world .
2 What is the meaning of a "world-class scientific and technological journal"? The Opinion does not give a clear definition. The author believes that from the perspective of academic journals, it can lead the development direction of global basic innovation, and can publish the foundational and basic original innovation results of disciplines. From the perspective of technical journals, it can lead the development direction of global technology innovation and technology research. And industry development direction; at the same time, journals that can quickly disseminate innovation results and have been widely recognized by peers around the world and have strong sustainable development capabilities. In terms of actual performance, they are journals that can occupy the top 5% to 10% of the quantitative statistics of disciplines or industries in the world, especially high-impact journals generally used by first-class scientists or engineers.
Of course, scientific journals also include science journals. From the perspective of popular science journals, "first-class popular science journals" are able to interpret the latest progress and achievements of science and technology, lead the public around the world to pay attention to the progress of scientific and technological innovation, and have been widely recognized by the public for scientific achievements. Knowledge popularization and dissemination ability, and good market development ability.
A large-scale international survey based on the authors of first-class journals  found that scholars' recognition of first-class journals is mainly based on: ① good reputation (with brand, history, and trustworthy); ② high quality (high standard of acceptance, high level of evaluation More innovative content); ③Fast publishing (take various means to speed up publishing, such as priority publishing, fast publishing, etc.); ④ widely dissemination (convenient retrieval, retrieval by important retrieval systems, unlimited reading: such as open access); ⑤ great influence (It has a large degree of recognition in mainstream systems and mainstream scholars).
The formation of world-class journals not only has the historical crystallization of more than 100 years of hard work, but also benefits industry leaders who have achieved short-term results. But without exception, they are aiming at the highest quality standards and service standards, providing truly first-class innovation value discrimination services and worldwide communication and promotion to the groups most concerned about innovation value, thus winning the favor of the academic community.
3 How to understand the leading role of world-class journals?
The first is the positioning of the journal. The purpose and purpose of first-class journals is to lead the direction and trend of academic or technological development in the world, to report the results that scientific research and technical personnel need to guide their development and innovation, and to drive the continuous emergence of discipline or industry innovation.
The second is the social responsibility of the journal. First-class journals regard the direction and trends of academic frontiers for global scientific and technological personnel as a sense of responsibility and service. Only by providing sincere and first-class innovative knowledge services to the society can we better play a leading role.
Finally, the comprehensive ability of the journal. Whether the service is done well is not only the embodiment of the core competitiveness of the journal, but also the guarantee of the sustainable development of the journal. To publish achievements that can really promote academic and technological development, published articles must have strong vitality in science in order to drive the development of one or more disciplines.
First-class scholars do not just look at the journal's impact factor when publishing a paper, but pay more attention to the actual influence and leading role of the journal. For example, the US Physical Review Letters (PRL, Physical Review Letters) is not the journal with the highest SCI impact factor in physics (IF2018 = 9.227, ranked sixth in the SCI physics field in 2018), but it is the mind of physicists One of the most leading journals in the world! Statistics show that a total of 278 landmark papers of Nobel Prize winners in physics from 1901 to 2012 were published in the journal, and the Physics Review Letters alone accounted for 57. On September 9, 2015, when the empty ripples had not yet reached two laser interference gravitational wave detectors in Louisiana and Washington, USA, members of the LIGO Scientific Cooperation Organization held a collective vote to decide how they would be One of the most important discoveries in the history of physics has been announced . ① Five days later, they discovered gravitational waves. Peter K. Fritschel, chief scientist at LIGO, said the "highest voice" option appeared: The Physical Review Letters. The journal is one of the most prestigious journals in this field, and its published research has long been a field-leading role, and many of its studies have won the Nobel Prize. Fritschel emphasized that it is one of the "first choice journals for the publication of physics achievements", and such a status makes PRL irreplaceable in the minds of first-class physicists.
Is there a leading journal in China? China has periodicals that lead the development of science. "Science Bulletin" is the sacred temple of science and technology in the minds of older scientists! The purpose of "Science Bulletin" is to report on the basic and forward-looking nature of the international advanced level in the fields of natural science and high technology. Research results, and pay special attention to reporting the world-leading research results of Chinese scientists. The world's first artificially synthesized protein "Total Synthesis of Crystalline Insulin" and the world's first artificially synthesized nucleic acid molecule "Yeast Alanine Transfer Ribonucleic Acid (Yeast Alanine tRNA)" were published in Science Bulletin. . The world's leading Chinese original results published in Science Bulletin also include: Tong Zhou's "Fish Cell Nuclear Transfer", Chen Jingrun's research results on Goldbach's conjecture, and Tu Yu's "A New Type of Sesquiterpene Lactone -Artemisinin, Yuan Longping, "Male Infertility in Rice", Zhao Zhongxian, etc. "High Critical Temperature Superconductivity of Sr (Ba) -La-Cu Oxide", etc. In many subject areas, a large number of subject representative journals have also played a role in leading China's academic development. For example, Deng Jiaxian's "On the Metamorphosis of the Hydrogen Nuclei" was published in the 1st issue of the Chinese Journal of Physics (1953, renamed the Chinese Journal of Physics) in 1951. The "Research on the Nucleus Development Potential of Fish Culture Cells" published in "Journal of Aquatic Biology" in 1986, using kidney cells from adult catfish to cultivate the world's first somatic cloned fish, is more profitable than the use of adult sheep's breast cells "Sheep" 15 years earlier.
Is it possible that more leading journals will emerge in China? It depends on whether China has first-class scientific and technological achievements. In fact, according to the statistics of WOS and ESI in 2018, China has 76 disciplines in the world. The total number of SCI papers or ESI highly cited papers ranks among the top three in the world. There are 41. For example: in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology, China's SCI papers account for 42% of the world's total, while highly cited papers account for 69% of the world's total; of which, China's highly cited papers are cited 55 times, which is already high Articles by foreign experts are cited at 52. This shows that we have sufficient first-class manuscript sources to support us in creating world-class scientific and technological journals. The question is, how can we improve our ability and allow Chinese scientists to give us first-class manuscripts?
4 What capabilities should a world-class sci-tech journal have?
The "Opinion" states that the goal of cultivating world-class scientific and technological journals is "the number of sci-tech journals in the world-class camp will increase significantly in the next five years, and the academic organization, talent cohesion, innovation leadership, and international influence of sci-tech journals will increase significantly. "Looking at the world-class scientific and technological journals, the author believes that their comprehensive capabilities can be summarized into the following six aspects.
4.1 First-class journals with first-class cutting-edge problem grasping ability and leading ability. From topic selection planning, hot organization, and industry-leading content construction, they can keenly focus on major issues around the world and firmly grasp the frontier issues and disciplines of common concern to human society. Marginal and cross-cutting areas, especially the high-end and marginal issues touched by human innovation, can quickly judge originality, and carefully prepare first-class content and publish it in a timely manner.
For example, the discovery of major human innovations such as the discovery of neutrons, the discovery of nuclear fission, the discovery of the double-helix structure of DNA, and the first clone of mammals are the first publications in Nature; and the Apollo project of the first human landing on the moon, the structure of chromosomes Major achievements such as function and function, the discovery of brain-localized cells, and graphene synthesis were reported in the journal Science.
Statistics show that 76 papers of landmarks of Nobel Prize winners in Physiology or Medicine from 1983 to 2012 were published in academic journals, of which 4 top journals including "Nature", "Science", "Cells" and "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences" included 50 of them.
4.2 First-class journals with first-class academic discourse power and academic influence attaches great importance to attracting the highest-end academic resources in the world's professional and industry fields, such as top scholars, highest academic organizations, and first-class academic institutions. Academic resources to ensure the authority and credibility of the report.
In terms of the construction of the editor-in-chief, editorial board, reviewer team, and editorial team, we aim at first-class leaders and professionals, recruit them into the running team, and guide them to serve the journal, thereby improving the academic influence of the journal .
We can see from the three editors of Science magazine. Donald Kennedy, editor-in-chief from 2000 to 2008, Ph.D. in biology from Harvard University, academician of the United States Academy of Sciences (NAS), former director of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and has served at Stanford University for 12 years. Bruce Alberts, editor-in-chief from 2008 to 2016, a well-known professor of biochemistry and biophysics at the University of California, San Francisco. His "Biochemistry" textbook has been the leading position in textbooks for colleges and universities for many years. He has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences for 12 years. long. JeremyBerg, editor-in-chief since July 2016, Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry from Harvard University, former director of the Institute of General Medicine, National Institutes of Health, senior vice president of scientific strategy and planning at the University of Pittsburgh, director of the Institute of Personalized Medicine, American biochemistry Director of the Society of Molecular Biology.
4.3 Have first-class industry resource organization leadership and intensive operation capabilities. Give full play to the industry resource leadership of first-class academic associations, rely on the academic leadership and organizational coordination of scientific societies, and effectively combine favorable elements such as government, enterprises, and private capital. Rising to serve journals well and ensure the sustainability of the flagship brand. For example, Science magazine sponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), JAMA magazine sponsored by the American Medical Association, JACS journal sponsored by the American Chemical Society, Physical Review Letters sponsored by the American Physical Society, and the British Physical Society (IOP) series of magazines, etc., rely on first-class academic societies to organize first-class editorial committees and review teams, to allow first-class experts and scholars to participate, give full play to the role of experts in leading the industry's academic resources, and establish lofty journals Academic reputation, and gradually form an intensive brand cluster!
4.4 With first-class technology integration and development capabilities to ensure first-class publishing, dissemination and application effects First-class journals pay great attention to the audience's experience in the Internet era. You can browse major journal websites such as Nature, Science, Cell, and JACS. I saw: I pay great attention to the latest form of digital publishing and integrate the latest research and publishing technologies, covering various advanced technologies such as digital scientific research, open innovation, open access, online communication, multimedia performance, social network communication and communication, and integrating the publishing process into Scientific research and innovation process to create an excellent academic publishing environment; use advanced big data technology to help judge the value and innovation of innovation and prevent academic misconduct; use sufficient process data and supplementary information to prevent pseudoscience; use audio and video publishing And other technical guarantees to ensure effective and efficient communication; use online first and timely publishing (ASAP) and other online first-mover methods to ensure that the author's initial rights are realized as soon as possible.
4.5 Have first-class professional talent training ability, keep first-class author team prosperous. First-class journals regard finding talents and helping others to grow as their responsibility, and pay attention to the promotion of young authors and initial innovators. Open up green channels and special rewards to encourage outstanding talents to publish papers in this journal. Using various methods such as senior expert reviews, selection of young editors and reviewers, etc., to support the cultivation of outstanding young talents and the cultivation of long-term authors. For example, the British Medical Journal has opened a professional employment channel to serve readers. The British Journal of Pharmacology has selected excellent papers every year and provided funding for authors of award-winning papers to participate in international conference exchanges.
4.6 Possess first-class brand building and management capabilities, so that the publications have first-class market benefits. First-class journals pay great attention to the differential creation of cultural brands, and are good at identifying development positioning to form brand advantages and market competitive advantages. They have clear goals, respect cultural heritage and perseverance, and never change the purpose of running the magazine; they focus on brand extension, focus on core, intensive and industrialized development, and influence the global academic community with advanced ideas and scientific culture from an international perspective. The academic community recognizes the correctness of its direction of running journals, the sense of authority of leadership, the sense of honor of participation, and the sense of responsibility. Based on this, it absorbs more resources to cooperate and obtain development benefits. For example, "Science" magazine relies on the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) to develop global membership and expand distribution revenue through membership subscriptions. The 2017 AAAS annual report showed that its publishing business revenue was $ 54 million. Relying on its own major brand, the British Physical Society Press (IOPP) has worked closely with the Physics Society and scientific research institutions in the United States, Germany, China, Japan, Russia and other countries. The number of joint publications has exceeded 70, and it has successfully entered the markets of various countries. With an annual income of 49 million pounds. The Royal Society of Chemistry publishes more than forty journals. Depending on the society, it holds more than 100 editorial committees and seminars throughout the year to conduct academic publishing seminars, with an annual distribution income of 46 million pounds. The revenue from a single issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Sciences was $ 12.1 million in 2017.
5 Countermeasures to improve the comprehensive capabilities of Chinese sci-tech periodicals
5.1 The core of strategic planning capacity building is to find the ability of the journal to locate in the discipline or industry. Only by clarifying the international development strategic positioning of publications can we clarify the development path of publications and improve the level of running journals . The purpose of running a journal is different in different historical periods. Chinese sci-tech journals have been developed along with the development of science and technology in various historical stages of New China. From filling gaps and boosting disciplines to leading development and participating in international competition, they have experienced a large amount of quantitative precipitation, and now they have reached a new historical stage of qualitative change. . We must aim at advantageous disciplines, cutting-edge hotspots, and major achievements, make full use of literature big data analysis and evaluation technology, adjust our discipline positioning and development direction in a timely manner, and grasp the needs of national science and technology development strategies and important issues generally concerned by human society. The positioning level of the publication attracts the attention of first-class subject experts.
5.2 Content quality assurance capabilities focus on improving publications: ① Topic selection and planning capabilities. The use of literature big data analysis technology can timely reflect the leading edge or important topics, frontier hot areas, important achievements, and important scholars leading the world. ②The ability to organize articles. Able to find expert authors in professional fields worldwide and ensure high-quality manuscript sources. ③ Ability to review and control the manuscript. Find reviewers and use peer review and big data detection technology to improve academic and integrity assurance capabilities. ④ Edit processing ability. Not only the ability to check the language and publishing standards, but also the knowledge, fragmentation, multimedia, multi-language processing and editing capabilities.
5.3 The focus of the construction of publishing and communication capacity is to ensure the periodicals: ① the ability to launch first. That is, the ability to pre-publish papers worldwide. China HowNet launches the online launch service of sci-tech periodicals. Based on advanced network technologies, sci-tech periodicals can be transformed from the traditional "periodical" and "periodical" published on a regular basis to "daily journals", "time journals", and "sub-journals" that are published in time after finalization Every minute counts, which greatly meets the competition needs of scientific researchers to seize the right to launch scientific discoveries. ② Communication ability. That is, in a cross-cultural and cross-regional context, how can we target first-class content to end-user users by targeting segmented industries and professional markets. ③ Application ability. That is to make the paper and the background and process information reflected in it can truly solve the practical problems in basic research and applied research, and have the ability of multimedia interpretation to make the reader easy to read and use.
5.4 Periodicals for key development of business development capacity building: ① International market development capacity. Including the ability to build international brands, it can carry out important online and offline brand thematic activities at home and abroad. ② Channel expansion capability. Through self-construction or cooperation, it has worldwide user channels, which can ensure that the publications reach the libraries, research laboratories and personal terminals of academic institutions at home and abroad, and are presented to the end users in a timely manner. ③ Platform communication ability. The platform has the ability to serve authors and readers worldwide in their professional domain knowledge services. ④ Comprehensive revenue capability. With first-class digital, international, market-oriented operations, management personnel and better market-oriented resource conditions, it can solve independent, independent and sustainable development through market-oriented development. Operating capacity is a common shortcoming of our capabilities, and we are reluctant to invest in it. It is difficult to really solve this problem.
6 Conclusion In short, China's national conditions are different from those of western countries. We must follow the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and we must not copy the Western model in terms of the institutional mechanism and ideological management of journals. Running a journal in the new era must meet the development needs of innovative countries, and consider the purpose of running a journal in a larger historical and international context. Running a journal is not only to bear its academic mission of serving academic development and discipline development, but also to bear the political mission entrusted by the party and the country to promote the development of our national economy, fight for the right to speak internationally, build a world power, and realize the "Chinese dream" And historical mission. Therefore, it is very important to improve the comprehensive development capability of Chinese sci-tech periodicals, and we need the joint efforts of the sci-tech and publishing communities.
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