"Explicitness" and "Hiddenness" of Editors' Cognition Driven by Science and Technology: A Visual Inspection Based on Three Keywords
Abstract: It is an indisputable fact that technology has driven the development of the publishing industry and induced cognitive changes in editors' work. Behind this phenomenon is more accompanied by technical intervention, and gradually highlights the paradigm innovation of technological innovation, transformation and circulation. Based on this, this article examines the existing cutting-edge technologies in the West that have been used in editing practice, and finds that there are roughly triple technical paths to reconstruct the visualization of screen-reading content, form the intelligence of interactive content, and emphasize content acceptance. Following this path, a large number of new visual texts not only indicate the tension between the "dominant" behavior and the "recessive" behavior of editors in the media mechanism of technological innovation, but also stimulate between the "explicit-implicit" behavior. Rethinking editorial behavior in the digital age.
Keywords: visual communication intelligence visualization structure editing
In 2016, "digital editing" was officially listed as an industry title, and was included in the category of standardized management of the Chinese publishing industry. At the same time, digital editors of a large number of Western media are rapidly "standardizing." But unlike the policy paradigm emphasized by P. Hall, the West has shown more of an “advanced combination of technological characteristics that creates requirements for policy formulation, implementation, and evaluation”  Dimension, the stage of "Innovation 3.0" proposed by J. Short.
I. Technology-driven: The biggest feature of the stage of production liberation in modern publishing is the emphasis on the organic combination of social science and science and technology, especially the scientific production of knowledge support and technical capabilities. Grafted in the modern publishing industry, this production has gradually evolved into a reformed existing editing mechanism, and created a technological driving force that meets the diverse needs of audiences (shallow reading, self-publishing, etc.) as a new type of use value. Specifically, the journal cloud, QR code, VR technology, etc., which have been gradually used in the field of publishing and distribution today, can be regarded as an externalized representation of this driving force. On the one hand, it releases the editing production capacity. On the other hand, the behavior of editors was re-regulated.
1. The source of scientific and technological innovation as the driving force's origin can be traced back to Marx's discussion of social needs in the Critique of Political Economy (1861-1863 Economics Manuscript). It is believed that "because demand exceeds The possibility of production methods to meet this demand " led to the replacement of manual labor by machine technology, which in turn produced" Innovation "behavior. For scientific and technological innovation, some scholars believe that this is "discovering the laws of the unknown world and using science laws to create new technologies" from the conceptual dimension; some scholars recognize from the dynamic dimension that "various material elements have undergone new knowledge and new knowledge." The intervention and combination of inventions improved the ability to innovate and formed endogenous growth "; some scholars generalized this behavior and emphasized that" technical innovation includes innovation in applied technology research, experimental development and commercialization of technological results " ]. In any case, these understandings seem to point to "innovation" as one of the driving forces of improvement that are of an improving nature. Coincidentally, in the "Recommendations of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Formulating the Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development", the Communist Party of China directly positioned "innovation" as the first of the five new development concepts, and focused on the three dimensions of technology, system, and thinking. Dimension to analyze its connotation, thus highlighting the core idea in technology-led innovation.
The power of this concept can also be traced in the modern publishing industry: With the development of many technologies, digital publishing has advanced from early mass storage, read at any time, mobile reading, etc. to guided reading design, cross-platform resource sharing, Even the fixed-point push based on algorithms, and subsequently promoted the optimization and upgrade of the publishing industry from marketing, business, investment, and distribution. Publishing and distribution is no longer just the circulation of physical media (such as books, newspapers, etc.), but is intermingled with intricate technical cognition and thinking, so that the concepts of "reading", "viewing" and "reading" have been deconstructed and repeated. Structure.
2. In the process of restructuring and deconstructing the transformation of science and technology as production capacity, a kind of "organized transmission and acquisition of technical knowledge and techniques, and only the effective use of technical knowledge"  was gradually released and formed "Transformation of Scientific and Technological Achievements" as a kind of production capacity. Judging from the results of existing science and technology applications in the publishing field, this transformation can be roughly divided into four categories: one is the direct fruitful transformation of colleges and universities and scientific research institutions. The most classic case is undoubtedly the case where the academician Wang Xuan of Peking University industrialized his "Chinese character laser phototypesetting system", which directly contributed to the marketization process of science and technology and triggered three technological revolutions in the newspaper industry and printing industry. The second is the technical cooperation transformation of the product market and the media. At the micro level, this is a typical "process of delivering useful know-how about making and doing in one organization to another organization" , which emphasizes the diversity of elements Combinations, such as the popular reading app, were born because of technical cooperation between product companies and media companies. The third is the bridging transformation of the technology market and industry. This transformation technology can often be applied to multiple industries, and it is regarded as a kind of intermediary grafting content production in the industry. For example, the application of two-dimensional code and blockchain in the modern publishing industry can be regarded as a multi-link conversion of "technology-industry-content". This is also destined to be possible only under the premise that technology and the industry are more closely related.
The last is to promote transformation by using government coordination as the core strategy. Although under the influence of "European Paredox" , the production capacity resulting from this transformation has long been questioned. But it is undeniable that the introduction of the Bayh-Dole Act has indeed accelerated the commercial operation of US scientific and technological achievements, and since Premier Li Keqiang proposed "Internet +", all walks of life have indeed opened up in the Internet wave with the paradigm of technological thinking Various possibilities.
3. The circulation of science and technology as a form of communication It is clear that this possibility leaves a lot of tension for the intervention of communication thinking. Therefore, "Product Life Cycle Theory" (PLC) explains the staged characterization and problems in the transformation of scientific and technological achievements; "Market Supply and Demand Theory" (MSD) studies the demand in technology supply Compared with output, and emphasized the supply adaptation; "Game Theory" emphasized that the balance of interests is a principle that must be adhered to in the transformation of scientific and technological achievements. In fact, if you do not think from an interdisciplinary perspective, the above theories can be found in the corresponding communication theory. In 1962, EM Rogers proposed the "innovation and diffusion theory" ( The Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT) discusses in detail the communication elements that should be possessed as innovative things, and considers that things that have comparative advantages, compatibility, complexity, observability, and applicability can be regarded as "innovation". From the perspective of communication, it is emphasized that in the process of "diffusion", it is necessary to "transmit among members of a certain social system through specific channels" . G. Moore has thus developed a measurable information framework  to measure and verify the former's scientific nature of innovation factors.
This inspiring study by scholars contains more or less confidence and hope for the circulation of technological innovation. It also scientifically confirms some key turning points in communication: the "creation and publication theory" proposed by the Japanese publisher Shinichi Haruyoshi (Creative Publishing Theory, CPT) regards the role of editors as a key turning point in innovation and diffusion in the modern publishing field. It not only recognizes the "gatekeep" role of editors, but also emphasizes that editors plan in the "face of readers' different wishes" Select the topic, find the appropriate author, and share the pain with the author to finalize the central role in the publishing process . It can be said that even in the circulation of new technology as a form of communication today, editors still have a powerful role that cannot be ignored.
2. Keywords: The question of visualization, intelligence, and structure is here. Where does this "non-negligible" role of the editor role manifest? If it is simply regarded as "a professional change induced by the Internet-on-demand service gradually replacing mass communication mass production" , it seems that the powerful technology in the ecology of the publishing industry today is ignored. Shock. Obviously, this thinking is completely contrary to the liberation of production brought by science and technology. In order to answer this question, I turned my attention to the editing community in the mainstream western media, explored its cutting-edge editing and technical forms, and tried to find some details to explore in these plural forms.
1. Visualization: Content Reconstruction Rising from Screen Reading Back in 2014, the United States' Des Moines Register and Gannett Digital jointly launched the Harvest of Change (Harvest of Change) series of reports, which received the Edward Murrow Award that year, in recognition of the pioneering use of visualization technology for interpretive reporting. Subsequently, several traditional newspapers in the United States successively tested water visualization technology to increase the diversity of editing forms: in 2015, the New York Times launched a VR report that "recovered the cruelty of the Syrian war comprehensively and deeply" ; The Wall Street Journal launches a virtual reality feature, The World 2050 (the world in 2050), to showcase Japan's aging status; The Washington Post has released a 360-degree interactive video; The Guardian and Solitary Watch cooperated to launch the VR short film "6 × 9" ... It can be said that these moves meant that the visualization technology officially introduced the daily news production and editing mechanism.
But a careful analysis reveals that in the early days of this visualization mechanism, computer simulation technology (CST), computer graphics technology (CGT), sensing technology (ST), display technology (DT), parallel processing technology (PPT), Reality technology (ART) and so on stay at the visual level of mobility. It wasn't until the end of 2017 that the BBC's "Body on the Moor" used a "scrolling" visual plane report to actually use visualization for page editing. At the same time, editing forms such as visual cards, "embossed" texts, etc., which have greatly improved the characteristics of early visualization techniques, have begun to appear, as shown in Table 1.
It can be seen from the table that most of these visual editing technologies are based on screen reading mode and are suitable for text logic and post-modern reading methods of mobile phones, tablets and computers. For example, the "embossed" text uses sensors and tracking technology to "float" the text on the video screen. This way, the text can continue to read even when the sound or video is frozen, and the "scroll" The editors have further enriched the long-form report with a rich variety of pictures.
2. Intelligence: The formation of content for interactive communication. If the visualization technology is to give the page a visual innovation, then the gradual application of intelligent technologies such as Chatting Robots and Reading Glasses in the editing field will promote Vision has become a new interactive page, and it has further changed the traditional way of editing, proofreading, modifying, refining and guiding the content formation, and promote better interaction between "readers-audience": In 2016, Quartz, a mobile-focused website, launched The news app for the first time used news to deliver news to the audience. Its biggest innovation is the use of BASIC / C ++ / Linux's initial language technology to induce users to participate in content production in the form of interactive dialogues. It is not only easy to operate, but also highly inclusive. It also creates a relaxed and personified atmosphere in the form of smart chat. This "artificial dialogue" news form not only received rave reviews, but also aroused strong attention in the industry. In 2017, the BBC chat platform, the Chinese and English bilingual platform published by the New York Times in WeChat, and German Bild were pushed on Facebook Messenger. The news can be seen in this form of application. With the success of the marketization of Google Glasses, reading glasses gradually overcome the early "moving dizziness during use" , and began to use eye tracking and precision algorithm technology to connect with various data in Internet applications, and Enter information or extract reading information directly into the visual interface in the device. In fact, in the existing Reed smart glasses and its evolutionary versions, the application of multiple technologies such as computer graphics human-machine interface technology, simulation technology, and sensing technology has been seen, and it has broken through the image processor (GPU) and perception. With the core of interaction, the intelligent features are obvious.
As a result, the focus of the editor has gradually shifted from "content is king" to "interaction is king". Quartz product executive editor and vice president Zach Seward said that during the development process, Quartz's research focus is to explore how people interact with text, and even emphasize that ads should be presented in the form of dialog boxes. Coincidentally, although application writing programs such as Reuters' OpenCalais, Associated Press's Wordsmith, and Tencent's Dreamwriter have outstanding performance in corpus collection and analysis of user reading habits, their ultimate purpose is to better target product customers. The core, emphasizing the opportunity for better interaction with technical assistance. It is worth noting that, unlike the traditional, "interaction" concept of process, service, and evaluation emphasized by traditional editors, it should be summarized as a "you ask me answer" (Question & Answer) human-computer interaction logic-a built-in reader with intelligent algorithms "answers" the user's questions and finally "edits" them on the interface.
3. Structure: the acceptance of the content of cognitive communication. From the perspective of the technology used in the mainstream western media, most of the technology flows presented on the interface have not departed from the "reading comprehension is to form psychological representation" . The limitations of traditional editorial viewpoints, however, indicate the possibility of future editing, either implicitly or implicitly: that is, a cognitive intervention announces that the editorial reform will follow the "Text Processing" paradigm, However, it can present the visual technology view of "forms and practices of diversity" that Siegfried Zielinski considered. So we see that the Buzzfeed website uses a structured method to list the current news into a "list". The pictures and text are rationalized and edited in a top-down manner. At the same time, in the horizontal text layout, duality , English short sentences, digital guidance, etc. have appeared in large numbers, which greatly facilitates the audience's text recognition, and is suitable for the new ecology of mobile reading. Coincidentally, The Skimm began to connect news contexts in the form of a "Timeline" structure. This sorting from history to the present can help the audience clarify the necessary correlation of events, so that the development process can be seen at a glance, to a certain extent convenient The audience distinguishes between complex person relationships and the logic of the event process. The "New York Times" (online version), Twitter, and some social networking sites have begun to use the "headline + summary + link" structure to summarize daily news, these news summary sentences are short, fixed fonts, simple layout. With the help of algorithm push, the audience can see the daily news highlights at a glance. Although it is easy to be labeled as "information cocoon room", it does have innovative value in facilitating readers to read.
Obviously, most of these editing skills can be found in the cognitive study of reading: empirical research has proven that the more "deep dimensions" in reading, the "difficulter in understanding the sentence, and it manifests itself in the target sentence. Reading time increases ", and some scholars have adopted the classic experimental paradigm to find that" changes in stimulus position (front-back / left-right) can promote visual short-term memory and information integration of visual perception ". These theories use scientific methods and explain from a cognitive dimension why this structure is suitable for shallow reading and easy to accept by the audience. The formed cognitive structure model is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1 Structures of Western Mainstream Structures
Figure 1 summarizes the current mainstream forms of structure use in the West, which are "list-style" (1-1), "tree-like" (1-2), and "pie-like" (1-3). : "List-style" with pictures and text, clearly listed the key points of the news; "Tree-like" takes the timeline as the main axis, emphasizing the connection between the main event and other related events in the "branch" and "context", At a glance, it also promotes the audience's overall awareness of the event; the "pie-like form" on the page takes the title as the core, hints, abstracts, etc. as auxiliary, and uses external links and other editing forms to include the main content and the full text of the article, In this way, "Cognitive Progression" is used to induce the audience to understand the reading content from shallow to deep, from key to comprehensive, and from core to periphery. It can be seen that the main line behind this cognition seems to be a logic of technological evolution, and the underlying motivation for each turn and change lies in the change of the form of the technology itself and the characteristics of the operator (reporter / editor).
Editing Behavior: Cognitive Reconstruction between "Explicit-Hidden" When we have reviewed the cutting-edge behavior of today's editing community, we may wish to interpret the cognitive restructuring behind group behavior in light of this characteristic shift. The reason for this advancement is that on the one hand it is enough to be a typical psychological way to influence editorial work, on the other hand it also reflects the important perspective of continuity and innovation as an editing action. In this regard, the reconstruction of this group psychology presents a typical dualistic characteristic, which has both explicit commonality and implicit individualization.
1. Explicitization—The commonness of the mechanism form shows the editorial reform of the pages (sections) from today ’s traditional media “New York Times” and “Washington Post” to the new websites Quartz, Buzzfeed, etc. It seems that the editing community still does not leave the “edit Traditional functions such as processing, typesetting, printing, and storage, and exchange of information with authors and reviewers through correspondence ", and these functions have been continuously strengthened and consolidated even with technological changes: Buzzfeed website editors are still being Requires a reasonable modification of the sentence to suit the audience's shallow reading; a large number of writing programs still need to be checked and screened by the editor after the collection of the chat; even the New York Times that has abolished the position of "Public Editor" To claim that this is not to ignore the role of editors, but only a transformation and debugging adapted to the Internet. Therefore, even today, with the rapid development of science and technology, the explicit characteristics of the editing community are still obvious—taking responsibility for disseminating scientific and cultural knowledge; ensuring the integrity and continuity of the knowledge pedigree through adjustments to manuscripts, pages, and text; discovering manuscripts Correct the mistakes in the proof in a timely manner; have a high degree of adaptability, and have the coordination and skills of multiple positions and types of work.
Further analysis, behind the formation of this grouping characteristic often has a complex mechanism, which includes policies, management, economics and other links. In the perspective of the study of cognitive behavior, these paradigms are summarized as "Social Mentality" to inherit and transform into a "social urgency" in the discourse system of Ivan Moscovich Sexual issues ". This perspective explains to some extent the sources of crisis that editors have in their career development, and it is difficult for editors to break through this trance under the traditional system. Today, the editing community under the media mechanism is in such a common way to maintain the consistency of its platform and group in an external environment facing unknown differences and constantly changing.
2. Recessiveness—a breakthrough in the personality of professional ability. This consistency is summarized as the effect of "Cultural Norms Theory" in the discourse system of communication. DeFleur reminds us that Realize that its spreading power is powerful, but it must not be absolute. This shows that although editing behaviors have common characteristics, they also have a certain personality space. A review of today ’s Western media editor community reveals that Hearst Magazine, known as “one of the largest multi-media and information groups”, encouraged its editors to work outside of work after acquiring CAMP. Self-learning visualization technology, data processing technology, etc. Because its commercial data business has become the group's fastest growing business segment, its Moter, Black Book and other segments have gradually adopted full visualization technology to push content to audiences. Coincidentally, the traditionally strong newspaper "The Washington Post" has expanded its technical team of more than 700 people in recent years. Among them, nearly 400 technical engineers are used to edit the rapid update of technology, and require editors to learn software development, client operations, and custom software. Wait. Seems to be a systemic requirement, but it also gives editors considerable initiative: On the one hand, editors can learn new techniques to meet job needs, stimulate new enthusiasm for learning in their careers, and on the other hand, they can return to traditional editors. Work-After the "A / B Testing" strategy adopted by the "Washington Post", the editor will make a second modification to modify and improve the hue, characters, typography, and picture perfection.
So we found that the editing community actually completed a transitional attempt of the "Spiral Of Silence" under the logic of technology in the gradual transformation of the media to "Internet +". This cognitive psychological mechanism is gradually formed in public opinion and group opinions, and its "opinion environment" influence is not achieved overnight. It uses hidden group power to change the direction of potential possibilities. The career transition of the editorial community has left a considerable amount of space.
3. Explicit-integrated fusion—Rethinking of editorial behavior It is clear that in the scientific perspective of “Embodied Cognition”, this transformation space implies the logic of “metaphorization” (Metaphor), It also seems to suggest that under the influence of the technical dimension, editorial behavior can have more diverse thinking and viewpoints: Williams pointed out after research that the formation of architectural mechanisms is essentially consistent with some of the most basic cognitive characteristics of humans. This mechanism must consider the adaptability of individuals and even groups , which shows that the advantages of this evolutionary theory can only be seen after a long accumulation cycle. Therefore, on the surface we can infer that the system reform that affects the adaptability of editors on the Internet will be slow. There will be a long adaptation cycle for the market economy mechanism, copyright mechanism and publishing brand mechanism of publishing. Individuals need to gradually transform in this institutional reform. When the title of "digital editor" was evaluated in Beijing in 2016, the standard used in the system was still the traditional case.
On the other hand, facing the empirical experience of cognition, Lakoff and Johnson pointedly pointed out the fact that "we can only experience what our body permits and operate based on our physical experience"  Therefore, the emphasis on the increase in the personalization experience of editors has become one of its breakthrough paths: today, major media regularly arrange editors to go out to learn, require editors to master a certain skill other than themselves, and emphasize that editors should ask readers or authors Learning, requiring editors to become "half-experts" in a particular field, etc. are all concrete manifestations of this "experience." In other words, today ’s editing behavior has a hidden individuality, which is positively related to the editor ’s own experience, growth, educational background, and learning opportunities. It is also the core space for editors to rethink and grow. The structure between its "explicit-hidden" is shown in Figure 2.
It can be seen from the figure that explicit system standards, media brands, publishing policies, etc., and hidden editors' aesthetic power, writing power, learning power, professionalism, etc. are transformed and interdependent in the closed-loop circle. It can be said that this closed-loop structure, driven by today's technology, collectively constitutes a space for rethinking the editing behavior, thereby inducing the cognitive reconstruction of the editing subject.
4. Concluding remarks Along the key clue of cognition, the technology-driven editing community still has various exploreable possibilities in terms of role, type of work, behavior, and positioning. It is undeniable that the technical path of the existing Western editors reviewed in this article is more of a mesoscopic perspective, emphasizing the reconstruction of editorial cognition in the technical dimension-this reconstruction is not only in practice The operation level in China also has a lot of thinking changes. As for where this change will go, the author will continue to pay attention.
Notes ① The author's note: video with text notes. The text "floats" on the screen, and plays a role of explanation, explanation, and supplement.
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(Author: School of Journalism and Communication, Nanjing University)
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