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The Localization of Newspapers and Magazines as a New Media in China
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Abstract: As a new medium of important imported goods in modern China, newspapers and periodicals cannot avoid the double questioning and scrutiny from traditional culture and classical readers cultivated by this culture when entering the native Chinese media environment dominated by the classical book system. This means that the new media needs to be legalized on both the consciousness and institutional levels in order to integrate into China. Based on this issue, this paper mainly studies the proposition from the perspective of media naming, and explores the relationship between the new media and the classical book system, and its position change in the structure of media power relations. It is worth noting that the process by which newspapers and magazines finally seized the media's right to speak is also the construction process of modern Chinese new media system.
Keywords: modern book system, media ecology, newspaper naming, middle class: G215
This article was published in the October 2019 issue of "Research on Publishing and Distribution." Since the late Qing dynasty, Western knowledge has spread to the east, new knowledge has impacted old science, and traditional knowledge systems and semantic spaces have been forced to restructure and transform under the impact of Western science. The new media introduced from the West have become a natural carrier for spreading new learning. From a broad perspective of technology, methods, and means, newspapers, magazines, and other carriers, as well as technical telegrams and printing, can be regarded as new media. Among them, newspapers and magazines are the main forms of new media, which have played an important instrumental role in the knowledge revolution in modern China. From the beginning of the early 19th century, Western missionaries started their own newspapers and magazines after the Sino-Japanese War. The information sources, content distribution, publishing cycle, decoration, and value functions were all different from those in the traditional Chinese media system. The newspaper, the Beijing newspaper, the Tang newspaper, and in the future knowledge production and information dissemination process, replaced and extended the traditional media status, and formed a new type of media structure. The history of newspapers and magazines in modern China can be regarded as a typical representative of new media. In view of this, the following references to newspapers and magazines may be referred to directly in modern media.
In the wave of respect for the west and the new trend, the way to play the attributes of new media tools is not without disadvantages. Newspapers and magazines, the two new media, are full of fetters and resistances with traditional culture and the classic book system on their way into modern China and capturing the right to speak of printed products. At the same time, the classical readers who were taught by the traditional knowledge system in modern society have a certain degree of cognitive delay in recognizing and accepting the new media and the new information contained in them. All this means that if the new media is to be integrated into China, it needs to be guided by the legalization of both consciousness and system. This article focuses on the localization of two new types of media, newspapers and magazines, in China, and explores their relationship with traditional newspapers and the classic book system from the perspective of media naming.
I. Learning Orientation and Chinese Naming: Two Ways of Localization and Reconstruction of Traditional Society in the Pre-Modern Period. During the turbulent period after the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895, new media were given the responsibility of changing the current situation and reforming civilization. Most noticeably, most readers examine newspapers and magazines with a serious attitude towards learning. Newspapers and magazines are positioned as "academic newspapers" in the minds of readers. ① They hope to save the empire's original knowledge system after the crisis through this new cultural form Mess. In this consensus, the new media was labeled “Enlightenment” and “Renaissance”. This unique media epistemology with deep Chinese context is a vivid reflection of the demands for new information products in the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China. Not only cognitively, at that time, in the educational institutions such as the new school, the new media was already regarded as a kind of learning and entered the room. When Liang Qichao served in the Changsha Current Affairs School, the new media appeared very frequently in daily teaching-"I didn't know the school at that time, and what method was used. However, I asked the students to make a note and self-approved. Thousands of words are no different from the papers published in newspapers. At that time, forty students, who read daily newspapers published by our genre, had almost the same spirit. Liang introduced the newspaper body into his teaching and incorporated it into the learning system, which was on an equal footing with classical teaching content. The newspaper body of Liang's words was replaced by "paper thesis", which shows the unique identity of the new media at that time.
In the modern Chinese context, newspapers not only exist as a carrier of knowledge, but also a direct incarnation of new knowledge. Light and fluttering Western newspapers and magazines have more burdens when they come to China, and they are expected to have multiple roles attached to the whole society. Under the heavy responsibility, the overall temperament of the content of newspapers and periodicals is coming out--the content far exceeds the scope of news. Commenting on current affairs, discussing western learning, introducing new knowledge, and constructing new knowledge systems have become the most common content settings in modern newspapers and periodicals. This means that the reality of the common world needs newspapers and magazines to explain it, and the methods to explain and transform this status quo also need both. Under the squeeze of the current situation, new knowledge and news together constitute the content of modern Chinese newspapers and magazines. This is the transformation of information at the level of learning, and it is one of the legal ways for new media to enter China.
From the perspective of the history of publishing and the sociology of knowledge, this means that in recent times, the carrier of knowledge has undergone a migration, and it is also a large-scale carrier expansion of knowledge through a new printing medium. This carrier expansion is inseparable from the realistic and logical pull of the disciplinary system. When newspapers and periodicals entered China, they were greeted by the Confucian classics world that has ruled for thousands of years. Fragmentary Western knowledge is far from a climate. Not yet rooted and cured. This has caused new media to face the scrutiny and regulation from the pre-modern classical world. Newspapers and magazines quickly fell into the academic system regulated by "books" (this is also the biggest reason behind the expansion of academic carrier) It is the responsibility of the newspapers and magazines to publish the knowledge that has been applied today, and the structure of inquiry that is centered on the predecessor's world is gradually being destroyed. Interestingly, this predecessor's world composed of thousands of classics and classical culture is equally powerful in naming new media. The classification and naming of newspapers and magazines clearly distinguish the semantic space regulated by traditional books. The good offices between the new media and the book system also constituted another legalization path into modern China.
2. "Shame" and New Trends: Use the "New Newspaper" to drive the old newspapers and new media of Dibao to land in China at the beginning, and the classification and naming are caught in a pattern of continuous confusion and chaos. Newspapers and magazines are conflated and hardly distinguished; when referring to the whole new media, in addition to the fashionable "newspaper", it is often called "newspaper". From the perspective of avoiding the risk of cultural adaptation, this kind of chaos comes from the active choice of new media, and it actively attaches to Chinese culture. Since it wants to survive in the book system, it needs to be isolated from the book system from the pre-modern period. The "newspaper" community keeps its distance.
In the pre-modern era, the dibao system was isolated from the book system and always existed as an outsider of the cultural system. In addition, the traditional newspapers are "unreliable in the news", and they are sold by the gangsters of the Tangyi Station in the form of "gongs with gongs". ③ The "newspaper" industry inherited from the Chinese classical world has always been difficult for readers to see. In the late Qing dynasty, the allegation of "newspaper" often borrowed the word "new" as a prefix to show its pursuit of "newness" and to delimit it from the traditional newspaper industry of "unfavorable occupation". This can be seen from the claims of many media at that time. For example, the title of self in the "Confession of the Library" and the "Regulations of the Library" at the time of the publication of "Report" in 1872 was a combination of the three characters "Ben Xin Bao" instead of the concise and concise "Ben Bao" : "This new report negotiates the price and sells it in Shanghai stores, each withdraws eight pieces of money", "If there is a confession of goods and vessel brokerage quotes, etc., who are willing to be included in the new newspaper of this museum ... Those in the museum's new newspaper ... The museum's new newspaper has a long history, so it managed to be taken by the bureau to Kyoto and other provinces for sale .... The museum's new newspaper is for sale ... "④ It can be seen, whether it is" The "newspaper" or "newspaper of the library" was deliberately added with the word "new", which was a very common practice at that time. Although it is only a word different from the "newspaper" title in the future, there is a cloud of mud. Don't-this implies that it seems that just using the word "this newspaper" will cast a shadow over the pre-modern era of this new industry.
The missionary Ernst Faber's "From West to East", published in 1883, hints at this with an article entitled "Newspaper Theory". The "newspaper" and "newspaper" are used together in this article. The ratio of the two uses is 14:25, and the "newspaper" is almost doubled. The distribution of the two is also more prominent. It takes a short time to talk about the general situation in this emerging information industry. At this time, the word "newspaper" was all used; when it landed in China, it suddenly used " "Xin Pao" and "Xin Pao" also seem to have a meaning that specifically refers to the Chinese newspaper industry; when China was put into the space again at the end of the article, the term "Huayang coexistence" was added in the terminology, and it was also used when referring to China. The term "newspaper" ⑥.
Huashi switched from "newspaper" to "new paper". This painstaking choice of words is obviously not to intentionally create a distinction between "newspaper" and "new paper". If you consider the writing purpose of advocating "newspaper" in an exhortation to call for more "new newspapers" in China, then it is not difficult to find the intentional distinction created throughout this article-"China can be widely transmitted "Newspaper", then, "Yu folk indiscriminately read and read." This sentence is quite clear. Rather than trying to distinguish between "newspaper" and "new paper", Hua's is trying to avoid making readers associate the above two with "di copy". "Newspaper" can clearly refer to the entire territory of the newspaper industry, but it is rarely used in China, indicating that the fashionable westernized term "newspaper" should be used to approach China's national conditions in a lesser way; at the same time, in order to be more Close to China's national conditions, the "newspaper" that had been used in ancient times was selected, but had to be prefixed with the word "new" in order to highlight the differences between the traditional "newspapers" such as Dibao, Beijing Newspaper, and Tangbao Newspaper. This shows that if the new media successfully enters the elegant environment regulated by the "book", it will have to exclude the negative image and possible adverse effects of the word "bao". Therefore, due to the caution and prudence of having a direct connection with the newspaper, modern Chinese modern media tried their best to clarify the connection with the old newspaper industry, approach the book system, and quickly enter the core area of modern Chinese cultural power structure. This recognition is quite profound and far-reaching. Even the American sinologist Roswell Sessoms Britton, who worked in the journalism department of Yanjing University in the early 1920s, has repeatedly stated that "new Chinese newspapers are not born from old newspapers."
3. Empathy and comparison: from "series" to "magazine"
In the early modern period, the new media, apart from keeping a distance from the word "news" in the classical field of vision, would make the popular "news" name generally refer to the newspapers and magazines as a whole, sometimes simply calling themselves "books"; especially the specifics of individual newspapers and periodicals. This phenomenon is even more apparent when naming.
In the early modern period, missionaries published this information product as a "book", which was very common. In the introductory preface to the "Monthly Chronicles of Chashi Secular", William Milne said: "... Therefore, the book" Chase Secular "must contain all sorts of truth." Alexander Wylie In the inaugural issue of "Liu He Cong Tan", it is also called "Book": "I am now writing" Liu He Cong Tan ". I also want to communicate with Chinese and foreign feelings, and carry things that are far and near, to change from ancient times to modern times. "⑩" Shenzhen "slogan written for" Han Suo Sui Ji "also treated as" book ":" "Huan Suo Sui Ji" is now fully bound, and anyone who sells in Shanghai will still be represented by the museum. Sell. "What ’s even more interesting is that in addition to self-made books, new media are more actively mixed in the classification system of the book system-or tied with traditional Chinese style, such as the" Aesthetics "published in 1838 "The History of Gothic Province", when referring to printed matter, describes the new media as "printers, classics, history, poems, songs, and newsprints"; the other is more common, that is, often in early modern times Attach new media to the famous four in the Chinese book system The classification "History" section. As Hua Zhi'an repeatedly stated in "Newspapers", newspaper practitioners must be "the talents of good history."
Chinese communicators of modern media are not unclear about the difference between books and newspapers and magazines. These self-cognitive attachments, which are clearly aimed at converging Chinese culture, largely stem from some hidden worry of the missionaries-in the early 19th century, Elijah Coleman Bridgman pointed out in the China Series that "Chinese "I don't know what a monthly magazine is." At the turn of the new and old centuries, the situation has not improved. Yao Gonghe recalled the situation of the new media in Shanghai in the late 19th century in "Shanghai Gossip": "The society does not know what the newspapers are, and the elders do not read the newspaper as their children." In this situation, Yao is not without emotion. : "Oh! The knowledge of Chinese and Westerners is not as good as it can be seen here." This implies that the weird self-awareness that the book claims to be is not a hasty move, but rather the strong strategic consciousness of the new media. Propaganda will. Missionaries are keenly aware that the entrance of the Chinese cultural market is not good, and if the new media is to integrate into local culture, it must reach a certain compromise with the world controlled and regulated by the meaning of "book". After all, "the scribe sitting at the gate of the gate is not a reasonable imagination of literati's social practice". It is undoubtedly dangerous and unwise to merge with the "Di Bao" in this period. In order to avoid or reduce the risk of being rejected by Chinese audiences, the new media began to “pretend” to show people, and tried to gain some kind of security by attaching to the traditional cultural classification system.
Of course, comparing books to books is not all out of a strategic self-imagination. In the early days of the new printing medium, there was indeed a relatively appropriate Chinese counterpart, the series of books, which naturally became the ideal local cultural reference in the minds of missionaries. Huang Zunxian, after reading the poem, "Read the old history and talk about the ancient events, and read the news for the current events. There are all the best and the best, and the same within Liuhe", after doing the following self-explanatory: "Newspaper ... its origin Di Bao is almost a series of books, but it is big and extensive. It goes beyond that. "This sentence reveals the view of a typical Chinese scholar on" newspaper ": newspapers and magazines are very similar to Chinese books. Similarly, the style, content volume, and scope of use are all beyond. In 1911, Jiang Kanghu also made such a hypothesis when he was the inaugural submission for "Social Star" magazine: "This magazine ... as a single copy of a series of books, or scattered and scattered, or as a mixed bag, as in a treasure chest . "Jiang's rich experience in Chinese and Western cultures and new media work experience, when making this judgment, it is clear that a relatively broad printing culture remains in the consciousness as a frame of reference. If you look closely at the attributes of the Chinese traditional series, this reference comparison has to be very interesting.
Mature in the Northern and Northern Dynasties in the Qiliang era series of books, since the Qing Dynasty to discuss this, the focus often falls on "collecting books together as a book." The "cluster" of the series of books, in addition to referring to the "fragmented clusters" in terms of quantity, is also more directed to the compilation style that brings together the books and makes them orderly. It's not hard to understand why the early newspapers and magazines known as Bao Hongfu were self-proclaimed as "series books." Even if I don't call myself "series" directly, I often use the word "series" to name me. For example, those named after "Cong Tan", "Cong Ban" and "Cong Bao", the former such as "Liu He Cong Tan", "Culture Cong Tan" and "Science Cong Tan", and the latter include magazines that have been renamed "China Cong Bao" over and over again, and Such as Lei Guan's "Xinmin Series". The "cluster" of the content of the new media is similar to the "crushing clump" of the series; its methodical arrangement of columns, the review from the editing method is similar to the order of the series; if it is viewed from the use, it uses "blog" Compared with the series, it is not too much. In addition to the word "cong", modern new media also use "compilation" as an editor's vocabulary that reflects the production process of the "cluster book", such as the "Gezhi Collection", which was published in 1876, and the "Influential" Compilation of Translation Books, Compilation of Journals, etc.
Since then, the "elegance" of the book "觊觎" in the new media, together with the two images of "Bo", have gradually overflowed from the meaning of "Cong" and passed on to the word "Magazine" until Monopolized by the latter. "Magazine" is an inherent Chinese word, and it has been used in book titles, such as "Qingbo Magazine" by Song Zhouhui describing the official system and chores of the Song Dynasty, "Book Magazine" by Qing Wang Niansun, etc .; it has also been used in volume chapters, such as ancient local chronicles The standing "Magazine" section describes the non-categorized content. Compared with "Books", which captures people's attention by "large volume" and corresponds to the "Bo" of the new media, it is impressive. The performance of "Magazines" in this area is inherently inadequate, and it takes only a few twists and turns. To become a full member of the new media naming system. "Magazine" entered the naming system of the new media, dating back to the founding of the Chinese journal "Chinese and Foreign Magazines" as early as 1862. But this is only an isolated case, and since then it has seen a great deal of momentum. From about the 1870s, "magazines" began to appear in the names of some columns in the new media. For example, from 1872 to 1875, fixed columns such as "Overseas Insights Magazine" and "Chinese and Foreign Insights Magazine" launched by "Han Zou Ji Ji"; Since the 1990s, the section named after the term "magazine" has become popular. It was not until the early 20th century that the “magazines” in the Pian An column broke through the narrow fence and returned to the naming of the new media as a whole. "Yaquan Magazine", "Oriental Magazine", "Beijing Magazine" and other magazines founded at the beginning of the century had a profound impact on the naming ecology of the "Magazine" titled publications. In particular, the longevity of the magazines such as the Commercial Press, Oriental Magazine, Education Magazine, and Women's Magazine and the authority of the quality of their content have gradually established some iconic identity for the "magazine"-which makes " "Magazine" eventually became the category reference of the new media, and was able to drive the chaos of the indiscriminate relationship between books and newspapers from the institutional level, creating a new pattern of media coordinates.
Breakthrough and Cooperation: The independence of new media and the linkage with books When the new media entered China's door, they were greeted by a local printing culture with a history of thousands of years. This force of silence has always had a deterrent effect on newspapers and periodicals, penetrating into the self-awareness and naming of the latter in a silent manner. The localization of new media is full of Chinese references.
The normative power and transcendental existence brought about by the "book" constitute a congenital limitation on the text form and even the culture of the new media, forcing the new media to constantly look at itself in the local reference, and in the Chinese side. Constructing self in gaze, and contaminated with many Chinese colors in the cultural and aesthetic sense in the context of "others". Compared to western ancestors, modern Chinese newspapers and periodicals are more like a modified version of the East. In the naming, there is a cluster of conceptual clusters of stars--the names are dazzling, but they always lack the directionality that can clearly define new media categories. For a time, modern books and periodicals were indiscriminate.
It is interesting that in the period of the Republic of China, the training power of "books" gradually encountered interpretation. Newspapers and magazines seized the right to speak in the information industry, began to dominate the production of knowledge, and occupied the interaction with books in the printing market. Have the upper hand. In the 1930s, as an outsider, Bai Ruihua also clearly felt this change: "Chinese newspapers and magazines have so many topics that newspapers and magazines have largely occupied the territory of the book publishing industry." An interesting new pattern-"The competition between magazines and newspaper supplements makes the traditional media of book publishing the only space left for reprints and textbooks." This structural change in the field of information production was particularly evident in the 1930s, known as the "Year of the Magazine", "The Tide of Ancient Books", and the Textbook War. This means that after experiencing a series of self-legalization actions, the new media broke free of the shackles of the book system, occupied a place in the information product market, and got rid of the subsidiary fate.
From another point of view, the "noisy win" of the new media does not bring about a completely tense competitive landscape for the media ecology. Books and newspapers can also be regarded as partners in content selection. The only difference lies in content selection. The order of appearance-through structured content reorganization, thematic disassembly and combination of the contents of multiple issues of newspapers and magazines, each can be a book into the journey of re-dissemination.
This strategy of publishing books and periodicals frequently seen in the future is beginning to take shape in the late Qing Dynasty. In the preface of the first issue, "Shen Bao" talked about this kind of publishing method: "The best combination is a book, such as the distant book" Xia Yuan Guan Zhen ", and the recent book, such as" The Flying Dragon News ", has spread to China. Do you not benefit the infinite? "The official favored" Compilation of Recent Issues in the West "and the far-reaching" Illustrations of the Sea Kingdom "also reflect the shadow of the book linkage-" Early Guangxu, Shanghai Machinery Manufacturing Bureau Yanmei Jinli Kai And Lin Lezhi, who translated foreign newspapers, selected more than ten news articles daily or in a few days, and printed them for official officials and gentlemen to read. The style was like a hand fold. Those who printed the book were called "The Collection of Recent Events in the West"; Wei Yuan's "Illustrated Journal of the Sea", which was "reported by foreign newspapers," was mostly based on new media content during its writing process. Zhang Zhidong of the same time also believed that Wei Yuan "translated foreign books and news on the occasion of Daoguang Reported as "Atlas of the Sea Kingdom". In the period of the Republic of China, this publishing strategy was already in full swing and was widely adopted by the publishing industry. Among the best, such as the World Book Company, almost all the novels of the Pupa Butterfly School adopt the model of first publishing in magazines (or newspapers) and then integrating book publishing.
This loop in and out of the book, with newspapers (or journals) in the books, and books (or journals) in the books, constitutes a very interesting circular communication circle in modern media ecology.
V. Concluding Remarks From the perspective of the media system, the content of this kind of books formed between books and periodicals is mostly subject to the new situation of newspapers and magazines, and unintentionally revealed a new type of media relationship structure—newspapers and periodicals as imported products. With the Chinese book system, it seems that the former has been domesticated by the latter, and the latter has been made by the former two stages. In fact, it is better to say that the two are mutually penetrating and affecting each other. In order to adapt to the circumstances of China, newspapers and periodicals have to pay attention to and "submit" to the regulation of the book system; in this conscious regulation and conscious imitation, the newspapers and magazines gradually changed the production and manufacturing of books in the form of content output. .
In this sense, when we trace back to the "ancestor source", we will find that both of them are different from their source, and have to some extent impregnated the unique attributes of modern China. In this circuitous change and containment between the two, modern China's new media system has also emerged.
Note ① This cognition is not an isolated example. For example, Huang Dan holds the theory of "media is knowledge", and believes that the new media is an important carrier of "new knowledge", and is itself a type of knowledge: "... This is not the case. On the contrary, as a new foreign object, it is based on 'new knowledge' to contact, recognize and use it. Modern Chinese newspapers and periodicals enter people's vision in 'new knowledge'-the medium is knowledge. This Not only does it mean that newspapers and magazines can play a role in new knowledge, it is more important that it is a kind of "new knowledge" and belongs to the "western learning" that has gradually spread to the east. " See Huang Dan. Media is Knowledge: The Origin of Modern Chinese Newspapers and Periodicals [J] .Academic Monthly, 2011 (12).
② "Liang Qichao's Teaching of Current Affairs School", this article is from the volume of "Liang Rengong Shuyi", Shanghai: Shanghai Library Bureau, 1921 (lithograph). See Editor-in-Chief Zhu Youzhen. Historical Materials of Modern Chinese Education System (Volume 1) [M]. Shanghai: East China Normal University Press, 1986: 308.
③ Yao Gonghe. Shanghai Gossip [M]. Wu Deduo, Punctuation. Shanghai: Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 1989: 128, 129.
④Regulations of the Library [N]. Declaration, 1872-04-30.
⑤Zhou Guangming, Yang Yan. China's Media Knowledge: An Investigation Focused on "Magazines" [J] .Journal of Nanchang University (Humanities and Social Sciences), 2017 (1).
⑥Huazhi'an. From West to East Tochichi? Newspaper Theory [J] .Wanguo Gazette, 1883 (732).
当然 Of course, this also has a great deal to do with the trend of modernizing respect for the West. Luo Zhitian believes that in the modern history of China, due to the competition between Chinese and Western cultures, there is a transfer of ideological power, that is, from self-esteem to respecting the west and becoming new. When the self respects oneself as "the Tao comes from one", it tends to be entangled in Western learning, and when it turns to westernization at all levels, especially the ideological level, it is "the Tao comes from two." See Luo Zhitian. Modern China Losing its Focus: Thoughts and Social Power Transfer in the Late Qing Dynasty and Early Republican Period [M] // Luo Zhitian. The Second Reason: The New and Old Disputes in the Transitional Period. Beijing: Beijing Normal University Press, 2014: 1 —10. To a certain extent, there is also a turning point in the modern print market in the modern era. The influence of traditional books has begun to encounter the fate of the slump, and the new media has penetrated strongly. The retreat constitutes a competitive landscape between old and new in the field of information production.
⑧ Bai Ruihua. Chinese Newspapers (1800-1912) [M]. Wang Hai, Trans. Guangzhou: Jinan University Press, 2011: 16.
精 Su Jing. Morrison and Chinese Printing and Publishing [M]. Taipei: Taiwan Student Book Office, 2000: 158-159.
⑩ Wei Li Yali.Xiao Yin [J] .Liu He Cong Tan, 1857 (1).
Confession in the Library [N]. Declaration, 1873-01-13.
See Bi Zhiwen's "Guo Zhi Lue Mei Li Ge Province" (Vol. 22) pages 64-65, quoted from Tu Lingbo. The Rise of the Concept of Modern Chinese Journalism [M]. Beijing: Communication University of China Press, 2016: 34.
In a short article, Hua Zhi'an has repeatedly stated the quality requirements of the new media practitioners four times in order to offset the bad impressions of the practitioners of the traditional newspapers and painstakingly build a new image of the "good history talent" of the new newspaper and periodical workers. See Huazhi'an. From West to East Tochiha? Newspaper Theory [J] .Wangoku Gazette, 1883 (732).
This is Pi Zhiwen's remarks in the China Series, quoted from [US] Bai Ruihua. Chinese Newspapers (1800-1912), Wang Hai, Translated. Guangzhou: Jinan University Press, 2011: 28.
Ji Jiazhen. Printing and Politics [M]. Wang Fan Yijing, Translated. Guilin: Guangxi Normal University Press, 2015: 45.
Huang Zunxian. The Complete Works of Huang Zunxian (the first series of poems)? Japanese miscellaneous poems [M]. Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company, 2005: 22.
Yuan Wen (Jiang Kanghu). Publication Words [J] .Social Star, 1911 (1).
Wang Zizhou.The dialectics of the beginning of the series [J] .Journal of the Chinese Library of China, 1991 (4) .In the Qiliang era, the "Geography Book" and "The Law Collection" that created the series were the ancestors of the series. It is also said that the ancestors of the series are "Confucianism and Enlightenment" edited by Eryu of the Southern Song Dynasty. Since this article is too far-reaching, I won't discuss it in depth here.
Although "China Journal" is an English magazine, it always narrates around China. The old translation "Macao Monthly", or "Chinese Library", and "Chinese Insights" and "China Series".
Liang Qichao not only named “Cong Bao” when running his own newspapers, but also used the term “Cong Bao” to refer to North American newspapers in The New World Journey (1903). For example, when talking about "Thoris", he quoted a capital statement contained in the New York media, which Liang translated into "The Four Seasons Series"; the other places mentioned the local newspapers in the United States, and also used the "series" Translation of the word, such as "The Monthly Series", "Socialist Series", "North American Series" and so on. See Kang Youwei, Liang Qichao, Qian Shanshili. Two kinds of travel notes of the eleven European countries? Travel of the New World and others? Travel notes of Guiyang? Gui Qianji [M]. Yuelu Shushe, 1985: 440, 458, 464, 535. Influenced by Liang Qichao, those named after "Congbao" have also been published.
Bai Ruihua. Chinese newspapers (1800-1912) [M]. Wang Hai, trans. Guangzhou: Jinan University Press, 2011: 103, 127.
The Origin of Shenjiang New Newspaper [N]. Declaration, 1872-05-06.
Ge Gongzhen. History of Chinese Newspapers [M]. Changsha: Yuelu Book Club, 2011: 84.
Zhang Zhidong. Persuasion (External Article? Cantonese Translation Fifth) [M]. Shanghai: Shanghai Bookstore Publishing House, 2001: 24.
Of course, the planning and editing methods of the first publication (or newspaper) and later books are sometimes deliberately for marketing purposes. After the previous newspapers and publications have received enough attention for the content, they can be combined into a book publishing style. , The accumulated reputation can be directly used for book promotion in a short period of time.
(Author: School of Journalism and Communication, Wuhan University)
This article is one of the research results of the Ministry of Education Youth Fund Project "Research on Image Narration and Communication of Modern Comics" (No. 18YJC860058).
Source: http://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/JagZI1P1obdzPoK7Lqu_XQ

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