Editing Practice | Copyright Experience and Enlightenment of Japanese Anime Digital Publishing
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Abstract As a leading animation powerhouse in the world, Japanese animation publishing and its copyright operation have a long history of development. Under the dual influence of information dissemination technology and digital consumer demand, the copyright operation of Japanese animation has also undergone major changes. And how to understand the relationship between tradition and digital publishing, how to use new technologies to improve the efficiency of animation copyright operation, and how to open up new copyright operation models have become the key factors affecting and restricting the operation of animation digital copyright. This article analyzes the copyright operation measures of Japanese animation under different digital publishing modes, and combines the Japanese government and industry-level research on the protection system of digital animation operations of animation to provide a basis for the Chinese government to formulate measures to guide the development of animation industry and companies to reasonably choose copyright operation strategies. .
Keywords animation industry; digital publishing; copyright operation Animation copyright operation is closely related to the advancement of science and technology. With the increasing popularity of digital communication technology based on the Internet, the extensive involvement of computer graphics technology, and the growing demand for digital reading by consumers, Digital publishing is regarded as a major innovation in the way of animation publishing, and the copyright operation, which is the main value growth point of animation publishing, also self-adjusts to adapt to the survival and development under the new technology environment.
The Japanese animation industry is innovative and large-scale. It has a huge impact on the development of related industries and world cultural consumption. It has its unique advantages in digital copyright operations. China and Japan have similar geographical locations, historical homogeneity, homogeneous culture, close cultural exchanges and economic and trade exchanges in the field of animation, and they are both connected and different in the development of the animation industry. Analyze and study the copyright operation of digital publishing in Japan. It can provide a reference for China to build an animation digital copyright operation mechanism with Chinese characteristics. This article analyzes the corresponding copyright operation measures based on the different channels of Japanese anime digital publishing, and conducts in-depth research on the protection system of Japanese anime digital copyright operation from the government and industry levels, so as to digitally publish the animation industry in China And its copyright operation mechanism construction provides useful inspiration.
1 Macro situation of digital publishing of Japanese anime In recent years, digital publishing of Japanese anime has shown a trend of increasing sales year by year. Looking at the comic digital publishing market, sales in 2014 were only 88.7 billion yen, and in 2017 it was as high as 174.7 billion yen. [1] From the perspective of the animation digital publishing market, the sales volume of digital animation distributed through the Internet was 326.5 billion yen in 2014, and it has grown to 994.8 billion yen in 2017, becoming the fastest growing and highest sales value of animation in Japan. Animation release category. [2] Although the total market of traditional animation publishing is still higher than digital publishing, the sales of traditional publishing are declining year by year, and the sales of digital publishing are close to 50% of the total value of the cartoon publishing market. Digital animation publishing has a stronger market potential.
At present, there are three types of digital publishing modes for Japanese animation: first, the direct digitization of traditional animation copyrights; digital technology processing of traditional animation publications and direct distribution on digital platforms; and second, digital reproduction based on traditional animation copyrights. Creation, traditional animation works with good market feedback are newly created and published in accordance with the digital publishing model; third, the pure digital publishing of new animation copyrights does not involve traditional publishing, and direct creation, release and dissemination of digital works in accordance with the digital publishing model Pure digital publishing.
2 Differentiated copyright operation based on digital animation publishing model Based on different digital publishing model of cartoon animation, copyright operation also presents different implementation methods and characteristics.
2.1 Copyright operation under direct digital mode The publishing content under direct digital mode is less innovative, and the content-centric copyright operation method cannot produce better benefits. Japanese animation digital publishing agencies have started to pay more attention to the scope of digital copyright authorization. Expansion, diversification of digital copyright carriers, innovation of profit models, etc.
With regard to the scope of digital copyright authorization, digital publishing reduces the space and geographical restrictions of publications, which is conducive to the expansion of international authorization. On the one hand, Japanese animation publishing agencies have adopted internationally accepted software and hardware facilities and technical standards for digital publishing production and dissemination technology, eliminating technical barriers to international digital publishing of animation. For example, DTP desktop publishing processing systems are mostly used for digitizing traditional comics. [3] On the other hand, it actively authorized copyrights to foreign digital platforms. For example, China's Bilibili Digital Platform has purchased 3,046 Japanese anime copyrights. ①
With regard to the diversified development of digital rights carriers, the development of new media devices such as mobile phones, websites, tablets, and Kindles has made the digital publishing carrier of anime present a diversified trend. Where consumers read, publishing organizations provide products and services. For example, Kodansha has partnered with Apple Mobile in the United States to provide 41 comic works to the App Store. [4]
The digital copyright profit model has changed from an early pure paid model to a combination of free and paid models. Set the first play time (such as the previous hour) or the first play episode (such as the first ten episodes) of a series of works to be free, attract the attention and discussion of "passenger consumers", and develop for "fan consumers" Higher quality paid services.
2.2 Copyright Operation under the Digital Re-creation Model In the new digital copyright development and operation of traditional animation publications, content innovation and operation methods all play an important role. The re-creation of anime digital content is divided into the official content innovation of the copyright owner and the fan-creation creation of the fan, which also leads to two types of copyright operation paths.
2.2.1 "1 + N + N" Copyright Operation for Official Works Official works are completed by professionals in the animation copyright party, presenting a "1 + N + N" copyright development and operation model. [5] "1" is a high-quality traditional animation publication selected by market popularity and professional editors. The first "N" is a new digital adaptation and creation of traditional animation, forming a variety of works such as animation, games, manga, and online literature suitable for digital platform launch and dissemination. Digital comics are usually used as the main storyline, and digital animations or games are used as sidelines or extra stories to keep the linkage. All digital rights developers jointly own the copyright, and develop and operate the animation rights of different digital platforms and carriers. The digital publishing agency fully integrates and selectively adopts the market feedback of various digital products in operation, and then adjusts the operation route of each type of digital product separately. The second "N" is a full copyright operation including copyright authorization, cooperation, derivative product development, and re-creation. It shows the extension from online to offline, animation and film and television, cultural creativity, education and tourism and other fields. Industry integration and development. In the linkage of "1 + N + N" copyright development and operation, the multiple developments of traditional cartoon digital copyrights have realized digital content production and value expansion, fully meeting consumer demand.
2.2.2 "Fan Fan" copyright operation of Fanren works In addition to official works, many fans also create anime works based on original works, that is, Fanren works. Strictly speaking, doujin works without copyright authorization are infringing acts. However, from the perspective of the Japanese animation market environment, doujin works have their own unique living space and digital publishing operation methods.
Doujin's works are considered to be “non-profit production raised by fellow fans” in Japan. Doujin ’s works attracted the attention of anime fans and provided strong publicity for the original. Animation copyright owners are usually very tolerant of fan works, and basically acquiesce to the reasonable existence of fan works. [6]
On this basis, there are two main forms of digital publishing and operation of fanart works. First, the copyright owner has clearly stated that fan creation is allowed, and fans publish and operate fan work. For example, the authors of the Oriental series anime have publicly stated that they are allowed to create. Secondly, the copyright owner actively cultivated the work of the fan, and selected high-quality works for publication. For example, copyright owners set up official fan websites, forums, LINE groups, interest blogs, and other social platforms to stimulate the production of fan works through various online and offline communication and interaction methods, actively authorize outstanding fan works, and publish on digital platforms and Operations.
In view of this, the outstanding features of the copyright operation of Fanren's works are as follows: ① subject to the authorization of the copyright party, otherwise it can only be used as a personal communication product for fans and informal publications; ② high-quality content can be authorized to publish and profit through copyright operation ③ The audience for copyright creation and operation is the core fans, not ordinary consumers, and the fans' preferences and needs determine the operation direction; [7] ④ Copyright operations make full use of the features of digital platforms that are convenient, efficient, low cost, and widely spread, which is effective Increase profitability.
2.3 Copyright operation in pure digital publishing mode First, micro copyright operation. Digitally published cartoon works usually have a small volume, so they use fragmented content as the core operating model in their copyright operation strategy. Through targeted quick push, a large number of short and intensive animation works were put on digital platforms in a short period of time, resulting in public opinion effects, and a "fast fashion" type of full copyright operation.
Secondly, paid members make money with "reward". In terms of copyright operations based on digital platforms, consumers can become "paid" for their favorite works on the basis of being a paid member to watch digital animation, and the copyright owner of animation can receive both member commission and "reward" income at the same time. Niconico, Japan ’s largest anime digital platform, has paid membership income of more than 70% of total revenue, and consumers can also top up Nico points (virtual currencies) for rewards and on-demand. ①
Finally, the balance between copyright incubation and enhancement. The digital copyright incubation of Japanese anime has been relatively mature, and a large number of "Internet celebrity" works are constantly emerging. After a short-term commercial realization, the value of copyright has been exhausted, and the publishers have to start a new copyright incubation, development and operation. [8] In order to extend the copyright operation cycle, it is also necessary to strengthen the value of copyright through value fermentation, system planning, and collaborative operations. For example, the digital animation "Soft Chariot" released by Vitality Gate has launched 47 related works after mature commercial planning and copyright operation.
3 Copyright operation guarantee system for digital animation publishing The virtuous circle of copyright operation for digital animation publishing in Japan is inseparable from the dual protection of government and industry.
3.1 Government-level safeguards
3.1.1 Update laws and regulations in a timely manner As a forerunner of Asian economic development, Japan has a clear understanding of the development needs of the animation industry, that is, laws are an important guarantee for the orderly development of the industry. The laws and regulations related to digital publishing in Japan include the "Copyright Law", "Copyright and Neighboring Rights Management Affairs Law", "Content Creation, Protection and Use Promotion Law", "Basic Law on Intellectual Property", "Basic Law for the Promotion of Culture and Art", and "Liability Limitation Law for Providers" Etc., regulate the digital publishing of animation from different angles, and together constitute a relatively complete legal system.
In order to eliminate the lag of legislation as much as possible, the Japanese government has continuously revised and improved laws and regulations in an attempt to adapt to market practice needs. Take the "Copyright Law" as an example. Since its formulation, it has undergone nearly 40 revisions. The revised clauses that have a greater impact on the digital publishing of animation include the "digital copyright" implemented in 2015. Rights holders can set digital copyright for their works. The copyright authorization system has been improved; in the "flexible rights restriction clauses" implemented in 2019, the use of works by digital platforms "does not infringe the interests of copyright owners" or "minor damage" can be used directly without the authorization of the right holder. [9]
3.1.2 Included in the National Development Strategy In 2013, after the "Cool Japan" strategy aimed at promoting the development of the Japanese animation industry was proposed, in view of the gradual maturity of digital publishing technology and the market, the Japanese government has successively launched a number of national developments related to digital animation publishing strategy. [10] For example, the 2013 "Ten Years Vision of Intellectual Property Policy" proposed a nation-building declaration on content creation based on animation and games, and proposed countermeasures to promote digital publishing in terms of copyright protection and operation, digital platform and network environment construction. In 2015, the "i-Japan Strategy" proposed that digital technology should be used to maximize the copyright operation and market scope of anime digital content. The "Intellectual Property Promotion Plan" in 2018 proposed to establish a copyright system that is compatible with digitalization and networking in terms of system improvement, database construction, and government-civilian cooperation.
3.1.3 Providing financial support On the one hand, the Japanese government has included digital publishing intervention compensation in the fiscal budget, established a government subsidy mechanism to support digital publishing and its copyright operations, and the Ministry of Economy and Industry determines the amount of compensation. Implementation. On the other hand, the Japan Government and People ’s Fund Industrial Innovation Agency and the Japanese publishing industry jointly invested 17 billion yen to establish a publishing digital agency①, in order to further expand the digital publishing market, strengthen international competitiveness, and improve research, education, and education. The publishing environment makes an important contribution.
3.1.4 The collaborative operation of various government departments on the management of copyright in digital publishing of animation is a systematic project involving the main parts of the animation industry chain. A single government department cannot achieve full coverage management of all aspects of copyright operation, and requires close coordination and cooperation of multiple departments. . The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry are the government departments with strong relevance to Japanese animation digital publishing. Copyright protection. The three departments work together through the "symposium" to provide strong guarantees for digital publishing and operation of animation. [11]
3.2 Industry-level safeguards
3.2.1 The important role of industry associations Industry associations are the product of the development of market economy and the refinement of social division of labor. They are an indispensable and important part of the market economy system. Industry associations related to Japanese animation digital publishing mainly include Japan Animation Association, Japan Digital Publishing Association, Japan Electronic Book Publishing Association, Digital Publishing Production and Distribution Association, Japan Magazine Association, etc. As a link and bridge between government, enterprises and markets, industry associations are not only the organizers of enterprises going to the market, but also the maintainers of corporate rights and market order. They not only provide information services for enterprises, but also coordinate the relationship between government, industry, research, and research. Can make up for the insufficient supply of government-level safeguards. [12]
3.2.2 Separation of production and sales publishing mode After the author or production company of the animation authorizes the copyright to the copyright agency or subsequent copyright development company, there is no need to worry about the benefits of copyright operation, and the maximum marginal benefit of animation works is obtained through the separation of production and sales, thereby guaranteeing In this way, anime publishing companies can devote themselves to the creation of anime copyrights in the process of topic selection planning and content production and processing, and invest the copyright proceeds in the creation of copyrights, avoiding the dispersal of resources and energy caused by copyright operations, and the formation of anime publishing in Japan Virtuous circle.
3.2.3 Brand effects of main creators and editors Brand effects can effectively promote copyright operations, and consumers' unique trust and worship of workers behind the scenes of copyright is an important way to create brand effects. Japanese animation creation adopts the "only master creation", that is, the main creative work is completely completed by the creator. The creator and the work are bound to become a unique brand logo. At the same time, the publishing agency will arrange fixed editing for the creators, and provide multi-stakes suggestions on creation and publishing operations, such as story structure, world view setting, animation image conception, and painting style design. The success of anime works is inseparable from the joint efforts of the creator and editor, so consumers have trust, love and respect for the creator and editor, and thus form the brand effect of the creator and editor. For example, the Japanese cartoonist Toriyama Akira and the editor Torishima Kazuhiko cooperated to complete best-selling works such as "Aralye" and "Dragon Ball", forming a unique brand effect.
4 The enlightenment of Japanese anime digital copyright operation to China. The digital copyright operation of Japanese anime has a fission of multiple works, multiple copyrights, multiple products, and multiple carriers. It operates multiple channels at one time and sells multiple values at a time. Development characteristics. China has a special political, economic, and cultural environment and cannot fully replicate all the practices of Japanese animation digital copyright operations, but its successful experience still brings far-reaching inspiration to our country.
4.1 Constructing a Benign Ecosystem where Digital Publishing and Traditional Publishing Coexist. The emergence of new digital publishing forms is not to urge the traditional traditional publishing forms to perish. Japan ’s traditional animation publishing still has a large market. The long-term reading habits still make traditional publications attractive, and for fans, traditional publications are more collectible. Digital media can become a channel for the promotion of traditional publications, and traditional publishing can also become an important copyright operation area for digital products. [13] China's animation digital copyright operation can use traditional publishing to drive digital publishing, and digitally promote, disseminate and recreate high-quality copyright. At the same time, pay attention to the specific needs of target consumers under different publishing forms, and develop and operate copyrighted works with different contents in a targeted manner to form a benign ecosystem in which digital publishing and traditional publishing coexist.
4.2 Close combination of copyright operation and 5G technology Japan's animation digital copyright operation has always focused on the use of high-tech to build a copyright management and benefit distribution system. Combining with the development situation of science and technology in China, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued the "Information and Communication Industry Development Plan (2016-2020)" and proposed "Starting 5G Commercial Services in 2020". At present, 5G networks have been established and used in major cities, and 5G mobile phones have also begun to enter the market. The 5G network era has arrived, and high-speed data transmission has made the use of smart terminals to spread and share digital publications a hot development trend. The integration of copyright operation and technology provides a stage for value enhancement for digital animation publishing. New animation communication carriers or channels have added new channels for copyright operations. In view of the high-speed transmission characteristics of 5G networks, China's animation publishing agencies can strengthen a variety of products. Type of copyright operation. For example, 4K HD animation, VR animation, 3D real-time multiplayer online games, etc.
4.3 Copyright operation expands from online to offline cross-industry. Digital animation operations in Japanese animation are not limited to the field of online animation, but are extended to many industries such as offline game entertainment, education and training, tourism and catering, and scientific popularization. For example, " Godzilla "hotel," One Piece "theme park, etc. Under the current business philosophy of taking market demand as the core and copyright as the link, China's animation industry should shift from a single industry operation in the past to a cross-industry operation. It conducts diversified operations in the field and conducts multi-business, multi-variety and multi-mode cross-industry expansion operations from online to offline.
4.4 Establishing a separate model for copyright creation and operation Japan's animation and digital publishing revenue can reach trillions of yen per year. Among them, specialized multi-dimensional stereo copyright operations play an important role, especially the implementation of the production and sales separation model, which ensures the effectiveness of copyright operation. At the same time provide a good environment for copyright creation. In view of this, China's publishing agencies should attach importance to and implement the professional operation of animation copyrights, and increase the professionalism of copyright operations by adding positions such as "content value-added supervisor" and "copyright operation commissioner", or strengthening cooperation with copyright agencies. Into.
4.5 Giving play to the active role of the government and industry associations Japan's animation and digital copyright operations cannot be separated from the support and protection of the government and industry associations. The government should combine the Japanese experience with the development potential of China's animation industry in terms of market demand, copyright resources, digital platforms, mobile devices, information networks, etc., and improve the legal system to scientifically formulate a legal system to solve and prevent new problems in digital publishing; In terms of policy support, the implementation of “rewarding with awards” promotes step-by-step rewards for factors such as the amount of digital copyright authorization, social attention, the award level of exhibitors, and market potential, and establishes typical successful implementation experiences. Industry associations should actively play the important role of bridges, investigations, consulting and training, industry supervision, and industry services to assist enterprises and governments to establish a good copyright operation order.

Note ① The data comes from the information published on Bilibili's official website.
② The data comes from the information released by Niconico's official website.
③ The data comes from the official information released by the Japan Culture Agency.
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