Zhou Guoqing Tang Yongliang 丨 Editorial Checkpoints in the New Media Environment
As an extremely important part of editing practice, editors' checkpoint is an important category of editing science and a general rule that media must follow. The era of new media has provided convenience for editors and brought new problems and challenges. It is necessary to grasp the characteristics and communication laws of new media, collaborate with multiple parties to highlight the role of the gatekeeper, enhance the awareness of integration to optimize the effect of the gatekeeper, and leverage the numbers. Technology to improve the efficiency of checkpoints, adhere to editorial justice to reshape the value of the subject, and thus promote editorial checkpoints in the new media environment.
With the rapid development of new media technologies, the channels and methods for people to obtain information are diversified. It is becoming increasingly difficult for audiences to make correct judgments and choices from massive amounts of information, and the important role of editors in social communication activities has become increasingly prominent. Traditional editorial checkpoints are mainly in the review and revision of information and texts. Most of them are “marrying people” behind the scenes. In the new media environment, they gradually move from behind the scenes to the front stage, and expand to information possession, topic selection planning, decision deployment, and later In terms of market operation and management, editorial control has become more complicated. How to provide the audience with high-quality spiritual and cultural products in the clamor of the public has put forward stricter and comprehensive requirements for the editors' checkpoints.
A checkpoint is a general rule for media activities
"Gatekeeper" is an important category of communication. Lu Yin, a social psychologist who is one of the four pioneers of communication, used the word gatekeeper in English in the article "Channels of Group Life" and coined the term gatekeeping. He believed that in group communication, The gatekeeper will screen, filter and process the information according to the group value and group norms. White introduced this theory to the field of journalism and communication, and analyzed the role of news editors in the news communication at a personal level. Later, Bath and McGuire and others expounded and expanded from different aspects to form a systematic theory of gatekeepers. The research of this theory has gradually extended to the organizational level and the social level, forming a common cognition, that is, there are "gatekeepers" in the process of mass communication activities, and the act of filtering, processing and transmitting information is "gatekeepers". Judging from the law of communication, "gatekeeping is a very common phenomenon in communication activities" . In fact, the dissemination of any information is inseparable from the editor. The editor's role in the information dissemination process is the common rule of any media . Editing is a deep communication activity in human information circulation, knowledge production, and spiritual and cultural inheritance. It is a creative work for quality control of information circulation, especially spiritual and cultural products. The editorial control is an extremely important link in the process of editorial activities and the editorial labor system, and is a general rule for media activities.
Combing through the research trajectory of "Editors 'Checkpoints", we can find that the academic circles and the industry have always paid attention to this. We can see both the importance of editors' checkpoints and their insufficient research. The author used "title" as the selection field and typed in the keyword "editing check". For 40 years from 1978 to 2018, there were 72 research articles with the keyword "editing check" in the title. The academic orientation is mainly focused on the following aspects: research on editorial gatekeepers in general, research on editorial responsibility and editorial gatekeepers, research on the role of editorial gatekeepers, and research on newspapers, radio, Internet, WeChat public accounts and other media editors. Research on people's literacy and requirements, and other issues related to editorial control. The research on editorial control is mainly carried out from the cultural level, the political and legal level, and mainly analyzes the selection criteria of editorial content, editorial literacy, editorial duties, editorial self-discipline, and laws and regulations; on the micro level, it is more about journal articles Media, newspapers, magazines, and other media make detailed discussions in the specific control process, such as layout quality, layout standards, layout style, and so on. Xue Dezhen's article "Personal Responsibility and Editors Check" is the earliest article. After explaining the relationship between literary responsibility and editors' control, the author proposes that editors should assist authors to control political quality, academic quality and text quality. The materials and opinions in the content are responsible, but the role of the editor cannot be weakened, and the cooperation between the editor and the author should be strengthened . According to such viewpoints, you can further consider that the responsibility of the author and editors are regarded as a pair of categories in the editing activities and the ecosystem. In the classic theory system of editing science, it touches the deep nature of editing labor, such as the creative labor of the author and the labor payment of the editor The relationship between the author ’s creativity, viewpoints, and the selection and processing of the editor, the relationship between the author ’s self-recognition and the editor ’s value orientation, the impact of changes in tools, technology, and the environment on editors ’control, etc., can all be expanded. To communication activities. In 72 articles, there are also studies on the impact of changes in the environment and conditions on editors ’gatekeepers and new requirements, forming a basic understanding that editors are the general rule for media activities, no matter what variable factors they face Should be continuously strengthened and optimized. Based on this, the author intends to explore the new changes in editorial control and its principles and strategies in light of the new characteristics of the social and cultural environment and communication activities in the new situation.
According to the "gatekeeper" theory, we can think that the editor's checkpoint is to ensure that information dissemination and the production of spiritual and cultural products achieve the desired goals. Based on the evaluation of the editors, the editors make a choice of information, especially the manuscripts. The editor's checkpoint activity is at the head of the dissemination process, and plays an important role in controlling the content, flow and direction of the information, and the response of the recipient . In the process of communication activities, editors must complete basic tasks such as information selection, inspection, and processing. At the same time, they must integrate their own creative thinking, disseminate knowledge and information that are beneficial to social development, and create a masterpiece for the audience. In traditional media, the editing subject has a high degree of control over information, and the gatekeeping work is hardly disturbed by external factors, forming a complete and strict "three-trial system" and other editing concepts and editing specifications. The gatekeeper system has universal adaptability. In the face of the profound impact of industrialization and new technologies, it seems that everyone is an editor. In fact, the requirements for information dissemination, especially content provision, and quality of editing and editing have become higher and higher. The characteristics of editors' control as creative spiritual labor have not changed. Editors have different changes and requirements under different media environments, information systems and social and cultural development conditions. Li Yuheng described the editorial control of the four stages of the traditional media era, the electronic media era, the network media era, and the converged media era, and analyzed "the changes and changes of editorial gatekeepers in the changing times." The constant gatekeepers, such as the quality of the gatekeeper and the four major responsibilities of political control, legal control, knowledge control, and dictionary control, cannot be changed. At the same time, the editor control variables should be grasped in terms of role change and scope expansion . Because the editorial control work runs through all information dissemination activities, it can be said that where there is information dissemination, editors exist and cannot be separated from the editorial control. In the new media environment, editors have changed their technologies or methods, but the essence of creative work has not changed. Even the editors ’behaviors of media information dissemination activities must meet the essential requirements of editors’ security. Editorial control can only be strengthened, not weakened. The main body of the editor should adhere to constants, adapt to variables, and constantly surpass to new horizons.
New changes in editorial control in the new media environment
The new media era is an era of network information and media integration. The rapid development of technology has created conditions and convenience for editors. At the same time, complex and changeable network information has also brought new problems and challenges to editors. New changes have taken place in the editorial control.
(1) Convenience of editorial control in the new media environment The convenience of new media technology has improved the efficiency of editorial control. In the context of traditional editing activities, editors' review of manuscripts is basically manual. In the face of overwhelming manuscripts, information processing, ordering, processing, and other processing links rely on manual work, and editing tasks are burdensome and often inefficient. In the new media environment, the editing productivity is optimized, and the editing labor efficiency is greatly improved. The rich operating software, editing software, and fast labor methods can implement standardized control of information and texts, automatically classify, smoothly modify, and accurately identify errors. The convenience brought by the diverse and automated editing processing technology has increased speed, saved time, enhanced the efficiency of checkpointing, and improved the technical quality of editing.
The immediacy of new media technology provides precise positioning for editorial control. The development of technology has brought flexible and advanced communication methods and diverse and smooth communication channels, such as algorithms. Even if there are still many problems, it cannot be denied its value. It uses related tracking technology to locate and summarize the hot issues of the Internet that the audience is concerned about. When planning and information decision-making, it can filter out redundant, invalid and even inferior information to optimize information resources. This is the basis of the existence of the editor's gatekeeper, and it is also the realistic landing of his behavior. An all-round analysis based on the effective integration of information is one of the conditions for examining the authenticity of information and its text, and is conducive to presenting the overall truth of things. The new technology is supported as a tool, which simplifies the procedure of this process, finds a convenient path, eliminates the burdensome information, and saves the tedious procedures of manual check-up process.
The interactivity of new media technologies has expanded the editorial control channels to a certain extent. This is the era of "everything is a medium". The advancement of technology and intelligent dissemination have gradually changed the checkpoint of editors from traditional professionalism to diversified subject-guest interactions, and the audience's feedback, communication and participation have become more frequent. The release of any information, in addition to the traditional editors' checkpoints, also has a variety of self-media users' multiple reviews, which make up for the shortcomings of traditional editors' single judgement and one-way checkpoints. When mistakes occur, editors in the traditional sense have been improved and perfected. The editors have extended the new interface and injected new connotations into the classic category of editing.
(II) Issues faced by editors under the new media environment Personalized audience expression challenges editors' right to speak. "The two-way dissemination has generalized the power of dissemination, the authority of communicators has been weakened, and the liberalization of information dissemination has made the scope of dissemination infinitely broad, which has led to the flooding of information."  The power of editorial control gradually Weakened, the power of discourse gradually changed from authoritative to anti-authoritative. On the one hand, due to the low requirements and low cost of publishing information from media editors, personal opinions that are difficult to distinguish between true and false, and mixed opinions spread across major online platforms. Rumors and rumors often emerge, and the right of the editors to speak is overwhelmed by the overwhelming information flow. On the other hand, the accuracy, precision, and scientificity of data resources in various network data platforms need to be further verified. This information weakens or dilutes the effect of editorial checks, and many effective vocals cannot be presented in time, which makes the checks Its value is underestimated and the checkpoints are ignored.
Dissemination of truth events after emotional editing. In the new media environment, the main body of the gate continues to be generalized, the sacred status of professional editors is shaken passively, the popularization of information dissemination behaviors has sprung up, the threshold for editing careers has been lowered, and the cultural glory and solemn image of the past are lost. Many self-media users can only obtain scattered information due to lack of professional editing rights. Especially in some disasters or things that reflect human nature, it is difficult for individuals to get rid of their emotional bias, and they often do not pay attention to empirical investigations of events. , Emotionally consciously or unconsciously embedded in the editing process, thereby increasing the possibility of post-truth transmission. The "collusion" between individual editing behaviors and post-truth behaviors has led to information mutation and the alienation of information acceptance psychology and the crisis of public opinion after the risk has been amplified .
Diversified editing platforms increase the technical difficulty of editorial control. In the new media environment, in addition to newspapers, radio and television, "two micro-ends" and other editing platforms, various virtual technologies, artificial intelligence and other media products have also been ushered in. The emergence of these new technologies has made editorial control more complicated. The timeliness requirements are also getting higher and higher, and the traditional editors must constantly adapt to the open and immediate network environment. Restrictions on information equipment and technical barriers make it difficult for traditional editors to quickly master the corresponding technical processing skills in a short time, and artificial intelligence such as algorithm technology is gradually replacing the content of traditional editors. In addition, the cross-media operation method under media integration also puts forward new capabilities and technical requirements for the editing body.
The dynamic editing object extends the period of editing the gatekeeper. The dynamic editing object mentioned in this article refers to the constantly updated information resources. In traditional editing activities, the manuscript is a static and complete text. As long as the gatekeepers such as the "three-trial system" are completed within the prescribed period to ensure the quality of the manuscript, the gatekeeper requirements are met. In the new media environment, it is especially important to grasp the timeliness and highlight the continuity. There is a constant flow of information release, and the content release is in a rolling state. It is difficult for a dynamic editing object to form a complete text in a short period of time. Once it is not handled well, phenomena such as "reverse opinion" will occur, making it difficult to synchronize the speed with the real. The editing subject must always pay attention to the update of the information, and continuously and continuously check the same editing object until the end of the event. Such recurring and continuous checkpoint activities have virtually prolonged the period of editing the checkpoints and aggravated the task of editing the checkpoints to a certain extent.
The competitive environment of entertainment and commercialization tests the social responsibility of editors. The era of new media is also an era of self-enjoyment and self-intoxication. People consume information and gain pleasure in life through the media and technology. At the same time, advanced technology brings various competitions and pressures. Massive information is full of various temptations and confusions. The professional ethics and social responsibility of many media people have become fragmented in the process of continuous interaction, and some moral constraints have gradually disappeared. Paid news, false advertising, copyright infringement and other phenomena have been banned repeatedly. Laissez-faire entertainment and the flood of vulgar information have made the entertaining information cocoon anesthetize people's thoughts like spiritual opium and affect social atmosphere, while also losing the original meaning and style of cultural products. This also precisely verifies a sentence that Neil Bozeman once said: "News programs are a form of entertainment, not to educate, reflect on, or purify the soul."  Therefore, how to entertain and commercialize In the competitive environment, we should rethink our position, take on the corresponding cultural responsibility and social mission, and become the issue for editors to think and put into action.
The Possibilities of Editorial Checks in Three New Media Environments
Facing opportunities and challenges, editors should give full play to their subjective initiative in the gatekeeper activities. They must not only maintain the characteristics of traditional editor gatekeepers, but also continuously optimize and give editors gatekeepers new era connotations; they must follow the traditional editor gatekeeper principles. In addition, we must actively explore the dissemination characteristics and laws of new media, do a good job of keeping pace with the times through various methods, and optimize the production of social, spiritual, and cultural products.
(1) Collaborating on multiple parties' discourses to highlight the role of gatekeepers In the new media environment, the audience's discourse power and participation have continued to increase. Traditionally, editorial discourse rights have been impacted, and roles have weakened from time to time. Because of this, it is necessary to coordinate multiple discourses, reshape the gatekeeper role of editors, and improve credibility and service.
First of all, we must grasp the right of editor to speak. Editors are the gatekeepers of social and cultural development, especially the production of spiritual and cultural products. Their political literacy determines the development direction of China's publishing industry.  In the new media environment, it is even more necessary to improve the political and theoretical literacy of editors, and to properly guide the new era The gatekeeper of the editorial body; enhance the guarding consciousness of the editing subject, and be a good guide to pass on the excellent traditional culture; improve the ability of the editing subject's information identification and integration, and be the forerunner of editing and publishing in the new era. Through the above methods, we can strengthen our own right to speak, build a gatekeeper team with high political sensitivity, great sense of responsibility, and strong professional ability, so as to improve the leading role of editors and create masterpieces.
Second, pay close attention to the audience's right to speak. The trend of decentralization in the new media environment makes the audience's needs for information appear personalized. "There are readers in the heart and there is a market in the eyes". This modern reader concept requires that the editors should focus on the discourse audience and be good at listening to the audience. Aspirations, capture the audience ’s reading needs, meet the audience ’s right to know and express; be good at using easy-to-understand words to convey information, especially in news communication activities, treat online and offline services correctly, and obtain topics from online Materials, and timely and offline feedback and exchange, so as to enhance their own service and recognition, and to solve the problem of information dissemination and knowledge production "for whom".
Finally, focus on the voice of opinion leaders. A term often mentioned in the context of the new media network public opinion is opinion leaders. Opinion leaders are usually core figures in a certain field or industry, and they often bring strong public opinion influence in news communication activities. Therefore, the main body of the editor must make good use of the opinions of the Internet, and actively use the power of opinion leaders to guide social opinion. At the same time, it is undeniable that the advancement of technology in the future will allow editors to consciously shift to the role of opinion leader, because this is the inevitable trend of doing good editorial control.
(2) Enhance the awareness of integration to optimize the effect of checkpoints. On the one hand, focus on the integration of information resources. In the new media environment, in the face of fragmented and decentralized information resources, audiences often have the fear of choosing information, and they read various kinds of distorted information from time to time. Therefore, editors are also required to filter and interpret information because “ The editing activity is the intelligent activity of filtering and combining information ". Under the influence of media fusion, we must use search engines, algorithms and other technologies to actively capture hotspots and obtain rich information resources. At the same time, we must establish a database of negative and harmful information to mark and exclude vulgar and harmful and false information from the scope of data retrieval. However, content-rich resources need to be refined and integrated to meet the fragmented reading needs of the audience. For cluttered materials and resources, we must find topics of time significance and value, establish databases in different categories, and create value-added materials and create new materials. Utilize it to meet the needs of democratization, so as to achieve the unity of the integrated and refined control, and enhance social benefits.
On the other hand, we must focus on the integration of communication platforms. The information dissemination platform in the new media environment presents a diversified trend. Media product content requires multiple platforms to disseminate collaboratively. Editors must be familiar with the characteristics of various media forms, master different check standards, and find the best combination between each other. In order to quickly present the best performance of the work; at the same time, the marketing awareness of the platform needs to be enhanced. Under the condition of media integration, the audience has a new name, "user". User experience and user reputation determine the fate of information products and even information producers. Therefore, the editors must first start with the needs of the platform users, establish communication channels with the audience to help users think and judge, and set up an interactive platform to enhance two-way interaction with users, integrate and exchange opinions, and launch real-life Cultural products, thereby enhancing the economic benefits of the platform.
(3) Leveraging digital technology to improve check efficiency New media is not only a product of the development of digital technology, but also brings new knowledge and communication technologies. Major live broadcast platforms, APPs, forums, video websites, two micro-ends, etc. have become UGC (user-produced content) display platforms, coupled with the mature use of VR, AR, AI, H5, algorithms and other technologies, relying only on traditional editing knowledge It is difficult to adapt the editing methods to the editing control work. The filtering of the huge amount of information brought by UGC will make the editing body powerless. Therefore, media fusion forces them to learn to use new media technologies, and digital thinking has become one of the necessary abilities of editors in the new era. Only by possessing new technical knowledge can we adapt to the increasingly complex editorial control work, and we can improve our right to speak.
Digital technology avoids cumbersome check-in procedures, shortens the check-in time, and reduces the check-off tasks, which is an important support for optimizing the check-in efficiency. Therefore, editors must continuously improve their digital layout design capabilities, promote the integration of editing activities and network technology, and display the characteristics of the network age; they must continue to learn the corresponding technologies and methods, be good at using various information retrieval tools, and improve the ability to capture information. Ability; To be proficient in the editing and processing skills of various editing objects (text, pictures, audio and video, hyperlinks, artificial intelligence products, etc.), to achieve coordinated development in the interaction between the subject and the object; to use intelligent filtering software to manage the network space Speech, expand the application of intelligent technology in editorial control activities.
Of course, technology is not omnipotent. It is only an auxiliary means to improve efficiency. It can never replace ideas and wisdom. Completing editorial control requires editing to integrate into its own creative ability. Using digital technology to overcome disadvantages and controlling good technology, this is also editing. The manifestation of technical literacy, thereby promoting the coordinated development of intelligent gatekeepers and manual gatekeepers. The editing subject is not only a producer of knowledge, but also a learner of knowledge; it requires not only knowledge but also digital thinking. The characteristics of editing work cannot be replaced by other industries.
(4) Adhering to editorial justice to reshape the value of the subject In the new media environment, due to the interference of various external conditions, editors' awareness of gradual fading has gradually faded. Traditional heritage culture, educate readers, and editorial values that promote social development are gradually being commercialized. The impact of entertaining information requires adherence to editorial justice and reshaping editorial value.
To adhere to editorial justice, we should adhere to self-discipline and other disciplines. In editing activities, insisting on editorial self-discipline means that editors do not take personal interests and preferences as standards when selecting manuscripts, and integrate various factors to achieve fairness and justice. At the same time, editors must check whether they are in compliance with ethical laws and regulations, and also consider whether they can play a guiding and enlightening function to fully demonstrate the important role of ethics and law. This is also a process of improving self-ethics and legal cultivation. Give full play to the creativity of the editing subject, shape the true, kind, and beautiful editor personality according to the changes of the times, and give editors new responsibilities, thereby creating excellent works for the audience.
Adhering to editorial justice is the self-confirmation of the image of the editor and the basis for reshaping the value of the editor. To reshape editorial value, the most important thing is to respect the editorial labor. As an independent form of labor, editorial labor is the basic basis for the division of editorial occupation and the positioning of social roles. Respecting editorial labor is itself a value orientation for the development of the social industry. In this tumultuous era, respect for editorial work first requires the entire society, especially the editors themselves, to respect the editing profession. The advancement of new media technology is not a lifeline for job slackness. It requires editors to be based on justice, carry forward the spirit of craftsmen, and treat social benefits and The relationship between economic benefits and self-evaluation. Second, the state and enterprises should establish a system that regulates the use of new media and an effective incentive mechanism, so that editors' efforts will receive equal returns and return to the basic point of justice. In the new technological environment, all parties in the society are required to jointly create an atmosphere of pursuing justice and respecting editorial labor.
In short, in the new media environment, the trend of media convergence is constantly increasing. For editors, the change is to increase the learning requirements for new knowledge and new technologies. What remains unchanged is that editors still serve as "gatekeepers" or "gatekeepers." The role of "" is still the creator and disseminator of culture. It plays an important role in the entire editing activity and cannot be replaced. In the new media environment, doing a good job of editing the gatekeeper is not only reflected in the gatekeeper of information and text, titles, text, pictures, punctuation and other objects, but also the editors need to strengthen their own experience in practical activities. Use professional knowledge and skills, continue to exert subjective creativity, maintain a good mental outlook, abide by professional ethics, play a guiding role, and be a media person who dares to assume social responsibility.
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