Special Planning | 70 years of publishing technology: from factory printing mechanization to 5G all things intelligent
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Abstract A systematic review of the technological development of China's publishing industry since 1949. The 70-year development of publishing technology is divided into 4 stages: 1949-1987 is the stage of industrial civilization centered on printing; 1988-2001 is the stage of transition from industrial civilization to information civilization; and 2002-2015 is the transition from digital publishing to integrated development The stage of information civilization; 2016-present is the stage of intelligent artificial intelligence civilization. Based on the carding, it is pointed out that the publishing technology has changed from introverted and closed to cross-border opening; the transformation and upgrading of the publishing industry must attach importance to not only natural technology but also social technology; 5G will push the publishing industry back to the material age.
Key words 70 years; 5G; publishing technology; printing; artificial intelligence "remember the old and learn the new". With reference to other literatures and the development of China's publishing technology [1-2], according to the stage of industrial civilization (1949-1987), the transition from industrial civilization to information civilization (1988-2001), information civilization (2002-2015) and artificial intelligence Civilization (2016-) systematically combed the development of publishing technology in the four major technological stages over the past 70 years. Of course, the above-mentioned division of publishing technology development stages is not absolute, it can only be an approximate year. There are two reasons: First, the technological development in time is continuous and cannot be divided according to the year; second, there is a process of the diffusion of technology and innovation, and the development is uneven.
1 1949-1987: The stage of industrial civilization surrounding printing
1.1 1949-1965: Independent research and development and the introduction of equipment to promote printing automation At this stage, the focus is on the comprehensive upgrading of printing from semi-mechanization to mechanization and automation. Electricity has become the main driving force for printing, but typesetting has not shaken off the situation of manual operation. [2] The publishing 【191566.com】istration department pointed out in 1964 that "projects such as casting machines and wireless binding have achieved initial success. The production of fonts has been semi-mechanized. The machine for manual paper renewal has been changed to automatic paper renewal, and the method of printing and printing has been improved. Offset, flat gravure process. " But "in the creation of new typefaces and the manufacture of typefaces, in the mechanization of typesetting and binding, in the method of making color letterpress plates, in the precision and performance of printing presses, in the printing quality of large-area color plates, and in advanced Process methods and the use of new materials, such as plastic, require years of hard work to catch up "[3]. The 15-Year Vision Plan for the Publishing Industry (1953-1967), formulated in 1955, explicitly targeted the transformation of printing technology [4].
At that time, the printing equipment was backward and the efficiency was far behind the West. The electronic color separation machine, electronic engraving machine, powder-free etching method, and fax printing used abroad have not yet been adopted, and the introduction of foreign equipment has become an inevitable choice. From 1964 to 1965, the Chinese printing delegation and technical team went to Japan and Western Europe for inspection and introduced the K181 electronic engraving machine, 187 electronic color separation machine, and four-color offset printing machine.
At the same time of introduction, it also developed independently. In 1958, the "Decision on the Standardization of Types and Types" was released, which unified the specifications of type and type. In 1963, the printing research institute designed new typography. In 1964, the "Printing of Common Chinese Character Glyph Table" was implemented. The above-mentioned standardized measures improve printing efficiency. In terms of equipment, it began to have rotary offset presses and four-color offset presses. Some factories have innovated in the areas of letterpress typesetting, letterpress platemaking, and lithographic printing. In 1964, the model engraving machine trial-produced by the Shanghai Hefengyong Casting Machine Factory made the pattern production mechanized. In 1956, Shanghai Xinhua Printing Factory developed an automatic paper punching machine. Through technical transformation, manual paper feeding was changed to automatic paper feeding, the printing speed was increased, and the self-sufficiency of low- and middle-grade gravure printing machines was also achieved. There are also breakthroughs in the manufacturing technology of published materials, such as the sulfite pulping technology has begun to be widely used [2]. Technology has greatly improved the printing efficiency of books and periodicals. Compared with 1952, the printing of books and periodicals increased by 84% in 1965.
There has been considerable progress in publishing technology as a whole, which has laid the foundation for China's publishing management system and scientific research. In 1956, the State established the Beijing Institute of Printing Technology (renamed the China Institute of Printing Science and Technology in 1978), and set up a laboratory in the Shanghai Printing Company (in 1961 changed to the Institute of Printing Technology). [5] In October 1963, a Chinese printing company was established to organize printing technology experience exchanges and collaborations, and formulate printing industry standards. It also improved the productivity of the publishing industry and established today's management system through the professional division of labor in publishing, printing, and distribution.
1.2 1966-1977: breakthroughs in "light and electricity" technology Later in this period, China's publishing technology began to recover. At this stage, the core of the technological progress of China's publishing industry is still the automation and mechanization of printing technology. After 1970, the country attached great importance to the progress of printing technology. In 1973, the central government approved the implementation of the "Printing Technology Transformation" project to solve the quality and speed problems of plate making, and basically realized the mechanization, automation, and linkage of printing. In August 1974, the "Chinese Character Information Processing Project" (referred to as the 748 Project) was implemented, inventing the world's most advanced Chinese character glyph information compression and high-speed restoration and output technologies. In July 1979, the main project of the Chinese character laser phototypesetting system developed by Wang Xuan was successful, and the first sample paper was output. The first sample book was published in 1980. In May 1987, the Economic Daily published the world's first phototypesetting using laser typesetting. The Chinese-language newspaper sold the typeface the following year. Since then, China's publishing industry has truly entered the "light and electricity" era.
In addition to laser phototypesetting, at this stage, China has realized photoengraving technology and offset printing technology, and binding technology has also begun to gradually mechanize and link, and further improve printing efficiency. In addition, China's audiovisual publishing has also begun. From the earliest magnetic tapes to the video tapes of the 1980s, optical disks began to appear in the 1990s. In 2000, there was no DVD production line. By 2005, the DVD production line accounted for 25%. Although later due to the rapid development of the Internet, optical media gradually withdrew from the mainstream market, but this also shows that the development of China's publishing industry was closely following the trend of the world's technology [5].
1.3 1978-1987: Promote the modernization of printing technology with technology to meet the rapidly growing cultural needs of the masses. After the reform and opening up, the progress of China's publishing technology has also focused on the copying process. According to the former Printing Briefing of the National Publishing Bureau, as of July 1978, there were 2,183 printing factories at and above county level in the country, with 25,968 printing equipment, but 89% were relatively backward-running and quad-running. It accounted for 10.2%, and rotary machines accounted for 0.8%. The typesetting is all by hand, and there are 240 manual phototypesetters, which have not fully played their role [3].
The "State Council's Report on Strengthening and Improving the Publication Work" issued by the State Council on July 18, 1978 proposed that the state of backward printing technology, insufficient printing power, and poor management be changed as soon as possible, and the policy of self-reliance was specified We must attach great importance to and support technical personnel and workers to engage in technological innovation. At the same time, we must also attach importance to the introduction and learning of advanced technologies in the world in order to accelerate the modernization of printing technology in China. A series of documents were also issued that year to adjust the printing house's system and stimulate the printing house's enthusiasm for innovation. After 1978, China's publishing technology has begun to take off again. The landmark achievement is the successful development of the above-mentioned laser phototypesetting system in China.
The publishing research institute established at this stage has strongly promoted the modernization of printing technology. In September 1978, the State Publishing Bureau convened a printing research conference to discuss and approve the National Printing Science and Technology Development Plan (Draft). In 1983, the "Decision on Strengthening the Publishing Work" clearly stated that "the establishment of a publishing and publishing research institute, enriching the printing technology research institute, and strengthening the scientific research work of publishing, printing, and distribution". Subsequently, printing research institutions have been established all over the country. In 1980, there were 14 printing science and technology research institutes nationwide, and 17 in 2000. In 1985, with the approval of the State Council, China's first scientific research institution specializing in publishing science research, the China Publishing and Research Institute, was established (renamed the China Academy of Publishing Science in 1989, and the China Academy of Press and Publication in 2010).
China Printing Technology Association and other industry organizations have been established one after another, promoting technological progress. For example, in November 1987, the China Printing Technology Association awarded the first Bi Sheng Printing Award. In February 1978, a total of 18 projects in the publishing system were awarded at the National Science Conference. The award-winning projects were developed around printing, such as "Wireless Binding Adhesion Fastness Test" and "Electronic Color Engraving Machine (Type II)". From 1985 to 2000, the State Administration of Press and Publication held a total of 13 technical progress awards, and 387 scientific research achievements were awarded. By the year 2000, various national departments will no longer establish awards for scientific and technological progress.
Already publishing units have begun to use computers for information management. In 1984, Jiangxi People's Publishing House independently developed a set of computer management information systems for publishing affairs, including six subsystems: financial management, printing materials management, information management, editing affairs management, and book distribution management.
2 1988-2001: the transition period from industrial civilization to information civilization
2.1 1988-1993: China's publishing enters modernization. At this stage, the development and application scenarios of China's publishing technology have begun to step out of printing houses and expand into other areas such as prepress and distribution. After 1990, China's book publishing cycle has been greatly shortened, marking that China's publishing industry has entered a modern stage. Huaguang and Founder's laser phototypesetting system not only occupied the domestic market, but also occupied the foreign market in the rapid development later.
At this stage, the demand for remote transmission of information and data by publishing units, especially newspapers, has become increasingly strong. In the early 1990s, Chinese newspapers began to use page description languages to transmit newspaper pages. In 1992, "People's Daily" began using satellite transmission to transmit pages to 22 cities across the country. The use of satellite transmission systems has greatly improved the efficiency of newspaper publishing.
Beginning in the 1990s, as personal computers began to be used in the workplace, computer software systems suitable for publishing units began to be used. In 1993, for the first time, the "Qingdao Evening News" achieved computerization in its domestic newspapers. Database publishing has also begun. In 1989, the Database Research Center of Chongqing Branch of China Science and Technology Information Institute (predecessor of Weipu Company) was established. In the same year, a machine-readable product (floppy disk version) of the Chinese Science and Technology Periodicals Database was released. In 1992, the product The CD-ROM version is the earliest CD-ROM database publication in China. In 1993, the product won the third prize of National Science and Technology Progress Award. [6] In 1992, the Green Apple Data Center, which provided technical support for digital publishing, was incorporated.
In 1993, the Internet had entered China, but there was no full-featured access. China proposed the task of promoting the national economy informatization. At the end of the year, the National Economic Informatization Joint Conference was set up to propose a number of national key construction projects such as the "Three Gold" project. [7] China has since entered the period of rapid construction of the information highway. Since then, the informatization of the publishing industry has become an important part of the informatization of the national economy.
2.2 1994-2001: National informatization promotes publishing network. In April 1994, China's full-featured access to the Internet, and the publishing industry also entered the Internet era. In 1994, Shenzhen Evening News and other newspapers used network editing systems. These systems were mainly provided by software developers in China, such as Beijing Ziguang Xinhua Technology Development Corporation. Beijing Magtech Technology Development Co., Ltd., established in 1999, is committed to providing information services to journal publishing units. Software providers such as Kaisi Publishing House Management Information System started to provide management information system for publishing houses.
At the same time, China's online publishing has also taken the first step. In January 1995, China's first electronic Chinese journal "Shenzhou Scholars" was published. In April 1995, China Trade Newsletter became the first electronic daily newspaper published on the Internet. The Internet boom of newspapers and periodicals subsequently appeared, and more than 30 types of newspapers, such as the People's Daily, issued electronic editions in that year, and 20 periodicals, including Popular Photography, also issued electronic editions. In 1997, the number of newspapers and periodicals on the Internet increased to more than 100. In 1995, the company co-founded by People's Daily and Murdoch News Group opened ChinaByte, which became a native content website. [8] In 1998, the Chinese Academic Journal (CD-ROM) Electronic Magazine was established, and it is the first continuous electronic publication publishing unit in China; in 1999, Wanfang Data Electronic Publishing House was established, plus it was established in 1989. Weipu, China's academic publishing has since become networked.
The state grants preferential measures to the introduction of advanced printing equipment and supports the reform of printing technology. In 2001, China Printing Press Equipment & Equipment Industry Association proposed the development policy of printing technology as "digital networking before printing, efficient multi-color printing, diverse automation after printing, and high-quality serialization of equipment". Computer-to-plate CTP began to apply. [9] Through continuous development and transformation, printing technology has made many advances. Book printing cycle was shortened to less than 100 days, laser phototypesetting, electronic color separation, phototypesetting, and offset printing began to spread. Microcomputer typesetting equipped with a Chinese character processing system was gradually adopted, and the integration of printing and publishing became a trend. The state continues to promote research in publishing technology. In 1994, the state invested 12 million to build a national engineering research center for new technologies in electronic publishing at Peking University.
The market structure of China's digital publishing technology providers has formed, and the technology providers that have been established one after another to propose solutions to market needs and continue to improve are the driving forces for technological progress from the market. In 1994, Beijing Gaoshu Technology Co., Ltd., which provides an online publishing system for newspapers, was established. In 1996, Beijing Shusheng Company, which developed e-books, was established. In 1998, Longyuan Digital Media Group was established. In the same year, Hanwang Technology Co., Ltd. was established and later developed into a technology provider that can provide electronic paper books. In 2000, Wanfang Data Co., Ltd. began to provide digital publishing technology platform services. In the same year, Chinese Online and Beijing Century Superstar Information Technology Development Co., Ltd. were established. The above-mentioned companies have continued to grow and become major domestic digital publishing technology providers.
3 2002-2015: The stage of information civilization from digital publishing to integrated development
3.1 2002-2004: The further informationization and automation of publishing are the eve of the beginning of digital publishing, which saves kinetic energy for digital publishing.
First, the information consumption habits of the entire society have changed, and online content consumption has gradually become a part of users' daily lives, which has laid a foundation for users to upgrade their consumption of published content. Such as blogs, Flash animation, SMS, online games, the rise of QQ, and the popularity of broadband.
Second, the publishing industry has further improved its informationization and automation, and publishing activities have begun to enter the digital stage. Although the core of publishing is traditional printed materials, the publishing activities surrounding printing, including prepress, printing, postpress, editing and proofreading, have gradually entered the information mode. Market demand has allowed more technology companies to enter this market, highlighting the information technology of publishing Speed up. In 2002, Beijing Qinyun Technology Development Co., Ltd. began to provide information services for periodicals. In November 2003, the Dark Horse Proofreader officially launched the 2004 version and began to be used in some central media. At the same time, foreign CorelDraw, Photoshop and other graphics and image software began to be used in desktop publishing, and Adobe's InDesign and other publishing systems began to be promoted in China.
Third, the digital advancement of printing technology brings new business models. As digital printing and ultra-high-speed printing equipment enter the market, the POD (print on demand) model appears. In 2002, 317 digital printing machines were installed. In 2004, on-demand printing websites appeared, and ordinary users were able to print their own "published" materials. Although online print-on-demand cannot be publicly distributed, it also supplements the publishing within the system.
3.2 2005-2010: The rapid development of digital publishing In 2005, digital publishing was written into the national plan, and the digital publishing industry chain began to take shape. By the end of 2005, 40% of the 573 publishing houses across the country had websites, of which 56.75% had developed or are developing online sales systems. China Knowledge Network included 8,206 journals in 2005, and 16,000 journals in the Internet in 2009. At the end of 2005, the number of Chinese e-books (210,000) exceeded that of the United States, with 1,900 e-book library users, and sales of readers exceeding 50,000 [10]. In 2008, the number of Internet users in China jumped to the top in the world, the proportion of mobile Internet users increased, and Internet users' acceptance of digital reading increased. The digital publishing development environment is gradually maturing, prompting commercial companies to join the digital publishing industry and technology development [11]. In September 2008, Palm Reading Technology Co., Ltd., a company specializing in mobile reading distribution platforms, was established.
The year 2009 was called the first year of e-books. The publishing industry began to cross-border integration, and industrial integration accelerated. China Mobile launched the "Mobile Story" and invested in establishing a reading base. Publishing technology providers, content providers, and IT vendors have all become involved in readers [12]. In 2010, there were more than 50 independent reader brands. E-book reader sales in 2009 were about 500,000 units, which doubled in 2010.
A new digital publishing innovation system has begun to take shape. National digital publishing bases (9) and national game and animation publishing industry development bases (12) have promoted the development and innovation of digital publishing. Some provinces and cities have established digital publishing industry federations or alliances to promote technological innovation. Traditional publishing units have begun to transform from content providers to content service providers.
Further development of printing technology. Inkjet, composite printing, CTP (equipment holdings reached 1,417 in 2008), printed electronics, and carbon balance became keywords. In 2005, the chairman of Yachang Enterprise won the "Bisheng Printing Award". In April 2007, 37% of the companies specialized in digital printing. On-demand publishing has grown rapidly with the proliferation of digital printing equipment (1410 units installed in 2009). In 2009, the on-demand publishing company Phoenix Digital Printing Co., Ltd. was established, and the “Guidelines for Supporting Digital Printing” issued by Shanghai will make on-demand publishing and digital printing the main sector of the national base, and China Publishing Group Corporation will enter the field of on-demand printing. Of course, the problems of backward technology and equipment in the printing industry have not been completely solved [13]. For example, the utilization rate of CTP is still lower than that of developed countries.
The state continues to promote the development of publishing technology. In April 2009, the Typographic Technology Industry Application Alliance was established to address the issue of typographic standards. In June 2009, the National Digital Composite Publishing System Engineering Technology Symposium, a major project included in the national development plan, was held. Companies continue to launch new products. Founder released the publishing house digital publishing system, the inkjet printer EagleJetL1000, and Ziguang launched an environmentally friendly professional film scanner. 46.5% of enterprises choose Founder's workflow system, which is twice as much as foreign brands.
In 2010, China's digital publishing revenue exceeded book publishing. Of course, there are still problems such as insufficient independent research and development capabilities of publishing units, less investment in technology, and lack of new technology research and development in major industries. In August 2010, "Several Opinions on Accelerating the Development of China's Digital Publishing Industry" proposed major technical tasks such as digital transformation and upgrading, key scientific and technological projects for digital publishing, and research and development of copyright protection technologies.
3.3 2011-2015: Convergence publishing develops in depth. After 2011, with the popularity of the two micro-ends, not only provided the technology and platform for the transformation and upgrading of the publishing industry, but also spawned the knowledge service "Big V", and the development of publishing technology was further closed. R & D is moving towards open use. The publishing science and technology innovation system is becoming more and more perfect, and the support for science and technology has been significantly improved. The national publishing authority has implemented major scientific and technological projects such as the National Digital Composite Publishing System Project. China Press and Publication Research Institute undertakes the research and development of digital copyright protection technology, and has formed engineering standards and interface specifications, standard system diagrams, application systems and service platforms.
Significant progress has been made in the construction of digital publishing standards. It has national standardization technical committees covering printing, publishing, distribution, informatization, and copyright, and has established 11 research and implementation institutions [14]. Implementation of the new "Standardization Management Measures for the Press and Publication Industry". E-book content, mobile phone publishing, digital copyright protection, digital publishing format, digital publishing and printing, animation publishing, game publishing, digital publishing satellite broadcasting, and other standards have been introduced or initiated.
The transformation and upgrading of the publishing industry ushered in an era of integrated development. In April 2014, the "Guiding Opinions on Promoting the Digital Transformation and Upgrading of the Press and Publishing Industry" was released, with "improving the technology application level of news and publishing companies" as one of the main goals. In addition to supporting enterprises to further informatization, it also focused on supporting e-bookbags, New technologies and systems such as personalized push, knowledge mining and semantic analysis, topic selection recommendation evaluation, and O2O content delivery. In August 2014, the "Guiding Opinions on Promoting the Integration and Development of Traditional Media and Emerging Media" was issued, clarifying that media integration should be supported by advanced technologies. The integration and development of the media industry has accelerated, and the transformation and upgrading of technology has accelerated significantly. Advanced concepts, systems, and technology providers such as the "central kitchen" applied in news units have strongly supported the technology upgrade of the publishing industry.
In April 2015, the "Guiding Opinions on Promoting the Integration and Development of Traditional Publishing and Emerging Publishing" was issued, which clarified the use of new technologies such as big data, cloud computing, mobile Internet, and the Internet of Things, and pointed out the development of mobile reading, online education, and knowledge. Services, e-commerce and other new formats, with big data analysis, structured processing and production, resource knowledge management, and cross-terminal presentation tools as key technological breakthroughs, and the establishment of "user demand, production demand, and technology demand organically linked production technology" system". The above documents indicate that the technological development of the publishing industry has entered a new stage of integration between the consumer and production sides, changing from a single channel to cross-platform, cross-border multi-channel communication, and changing from traditional content production and distribution to user-specific knowledge and other services. .
Around the time of the policy, new technologies such as cloud computing have also begun to be applied to the publishing industry. In August 2011, the cloud computing center business of Tianjin National Digital Publishing Base went online. In 2012, Jiangsu Phoenix Group launched a cloud platform.
New technology companies and new publishing models are constantly emerging. In March 2014, Wuhan Polytechnic Digital Communication Engineering Co., Ltd., which provided fusion technologies and solutions, was established, and later won the China Digital Publishing Expo 2017-2018 Innovation Technology Award. In 2014, Chinese enterprises (Intech Digital Publishing Technology Co., Ltd.) won the International Publishing Technology Provider Award for the first time at the International Publishing Industry Awards Ceremony. In October 2014, the national standards of MPR (Multimedia Printed Reading) publication series developed by Tianlang Times Technology Co., Ltd. won the second prize of China Standard Innovation Contribution Award. Audiobooks became popular, and Shanghai Zendai Himalaya Network Technology Co., Ltd. (founded in 2012) worked with other companies to promote the outbreak of audiobooks in 2016. Internet companies are involved in publishing with the help of technology and platforms, such as Dangdang's cloud reading platform, JD.com's JD.com reading app, and the latter also provides e-book lending services for campus network users.
Although from 2013, the impact of the Internet on book printing began to appear. But "Internet +" is also changing the printing industry. There are 8,792 digital printing equipments throughout the country, and the printing industry e-commerce platform has begun to grow, such as Daheng Digital's printing B2B platform. Printing is decreasing as a traditional content carrier, but the total volume is still growing rapidly, moving towards small batches and multiple varieties, and companies are beginning to use systems such as ERP. [15] "Internet + Printing" has caused a long tail phenomenon in the printing industry.
Big data and artificial intelligence have more applications in the publishing industry. The rapid development of "Today's Headline" in 2012 made the media industry realize the great value of algorithms and big data. Tencent and Xinhua News Agency and other units have been drafting robots.
4 2016 to the present: The stage of intelligent artificial intelligence civilization 2016 is a year of concentrated outbreak of communication change. It is called VR, webcast, short video, knowledge payment, audio book publishing first year. 2017 is the first year of artificial intelligence and blockchain, and the first year of commercial use of NB-IoT (Internet of Things). 2019 is the first year of 5G. "First year" sometimes means that new technologies or new models have become popular, and sometimes it means that the application has just begun. After years of integration and development, China's publishing technology has once again reached the threshold of a major change.
With technical support, there are various possibilities for cross-border integration of publishing and public services, medical services, e-commerce, education, and health. Even party building can be integrated with publishing: the APP “Small Party Bag” developed by the People's Publishing House in 2016, and the “Learning and Powerful Country” platform launched in January 2019 has also gathered a lot of book resources.
Publishing units have also begun to explore new types of communication using new technologies such as artificial intelligence, and some applications are at the forefront of the world. For example, in 2017, media such as Guangming Daily and Xinhuanet began using chatbots to interact with users. In 2016, 12 media including Guangzhou Daily established a VR laboratory. In 2017, there were more than 276 AR books sold on domestic e-commerce platforms.
There are also new breakthroughs in the application of big data and artificial intelligence in the publishing industry. In 2016, the big data and artificial intelligence platform "Faxin" built by the People's Court Press went online. In 2017, the “China Police Intelligence Database”, a professional intelligence knowledge service platform built by the Chinese People ’s Public Security Press, went online.
In addition to traditional publishing units building new intelligent knowledge service platforms, digital publishing companies and technology providers have also begun to use artificial intelligence and big data to develop professional knowledge services. Like the research and big data learning platform provided by Fangzhiwang, a question answering system is still being developed. Peking University Founder has developed intelligent question bank and diagnostic technology for education publishing. Both technologies have won the 2016-2017 Digital Publishing "Innovative Technology" award. Internet companies are also developing intelligent products related to publishing, such as Baidu's "Baidu Academic". HKUST Xunfei is involved in publishing with its technological advantages in speech recognition and artificial intelligence. The National Copyright Administration is also preparing to build a copyright big data center, as well as companies applying blockchain technology to copyright protection. Blockchain technology providers have begun to enter the market, providing a technical reserve for the further application of blockchain in the publishing industry.
The printing industry has also entered the intelligent era. In 2017, the printing industry gradually replaced manual labor with automatic, intelligent, and connected production equipment, with per capita output value increasing by 14.59%. China Science and Technology Publishing Group has developed an intelligent production platform for printing on demand. In 2017, in the printing of publications, digital printing was mainly off-page printing and on-demand printing. There were 3,700 leading printing and printing enterprises, of which 440 had digital printing machines. Advanced high-speed inkjet printers Fuji Xerox 1400 and Ricoh ProVC60000 were first applied [16]. In 2018, the "Intelligent Development Report of the Chinese Printing Industry" prepared by the State Press and Publication Administration pointed out that intelligent printing is an important support for the supply-side structural reform of the publishing industry.
Authorities continue to use policies to promote innovation. In 2015, the first batch of 28 publishing units were identified as pilot units for the professional digital content resource knowledge service model. The second batch of 27 units was added in January 2018, and the third batch of March 2018 was added 55 units. In 2016, 20 key laboratories for integrated development and 42 key laboratories for science and technology and standards were announced [17]. In February 2018, the “Code for the Establishment of National Press and Publication Industry Bases” was formulated, and one of the basic principles was proposed as “innovative development”. In order to reduce the technical risk of enterprises, the former State Administration of Press, Publication, Radio, Film and Television selected the technology suppliers for the digital publishing industry. In 2015, 28 professional digital content resource knowledge service model pilot units and 32 pilot technical support units were launched. In 2016, 67 digital technology service providers for digital transformation and upgrading were launched. In addition, the use of digital transformation and upgrading of central enterprises to upgrade government procurement methods, a total of 192 were recommended. In 2016, the “Guidelines for the Construction of a Digital Transformation and Upgrade System Guarantee System for Press and Publication Institutions” was issued to reduce technical risks systematically.
Of course, the technology application and development of China's publishing industry are still uneven. The survey revealed that some publishing industry practitioners do not use editing and editing automation systems at work. [18] To this end, in March 2017, the "Notice on Deepening the Digital Transformation and Upgrading of the Press and Publication Industry" was re-issued, calling for further cross-border integration, "encouraging news and publishing companies to join universities, research institutes, and technology companies, classified "Building key laboratories for journalism and publishing industries with different research directions" requires companies to increase investment in digital transformation and upgrading.
The publishing industry ushers in a wave of intelligence, but traditional paper books are also mainstream. In 2017, the international e-book market showed a downward trend, and 70% of e-books came from paper books. Readers are still inclined to read paper books. Although publishers use the knowledge payment boom to launch knowledge payment products or services, traditional printed publications are also part of the value chain. The Multi-Channel Network (MCN) model has begun to appear, and network platforms are involved in content production, making it easier for users to start their own content.
In 2019, China's 5G implementation, and how to use 5G technology will also be a new topic for the technological upgrading of the publishing industry for a longer period in the future.
5 How Publishing Meets 5G: Enlightenment from 70 Years of Technology Development Over the past 70 years, China has made many breakthroughs and achievements in publishing technology. Continuous technological innovation is the development trend of the publishing industry. At present, the main driving force of the technological progress of the publishing industry in China is the progress of information and communication technology. We should pay attention to and start 5G research and application in the publishing industry. The 70-year development history of publishing technology has brought inspiration to the publishing industry in welcoming 5G.
First, printing technology has always been of great significance to the publishing industry. In the future, the popular application of 5G with animal networking will further promote the further upgrade of printing, and new printing formats will emerge.
Second, publishing technology has moved from inward confinement to cross-border opening. The publishing industry must both develop new technologies and adapt to changes in the external technological environment. There will be more and more types of subjects entering the publishing industry, and more entities such as China Mobile will enter the publishing field. The popularity of 5G will accelerate this trend. With the growth of data carrying capacity, the type of publishing based on SMS or MMS may be upgraded to an important publishing form, and AR / VR publishing will become more popular; ultra-high-definition video and interactive publishing will rise.
Third, China's publishing industry has formed an innovation system that combines the promotion of the state and the market and integrates production, learning and research. In the early stage of development, the technological progress of China's publishing industry was mainly driven by the state and enterprises, and its academic and research capacity was weak. After the reform and opening up, although China has a publishing, learning, and research system, there is a lack of connection between the three systems. Later, the production-study-research cooperation became closer, and a publishing technology company co-founded by the three appeared. National policies have played an important role in promoting technology. Many technological breakthroughs in China's publishing industry have been resolved by the state. Technology companies represent market forces and also participate in major national science and technology projects. The technology they propose is more in line with the actual needs of publishing units and users. Therefore, technology landing depends on technology companies. To meet 5G, on the one hand, we should support research institutions that integrate production, learning, and research; on the other hand, we should support new technology companies that can develop market-oriented applications or promote companies that already have a certain technical foundation to transition to 5G publishing technology providers.
Fourth, the transformation and upgrading of the publishing industry must attach importance to not only natural technologies but also social technologies. Some scholars classify technology into three categories: physical technology, social technology, and natural technology. Natural technology is the technology that transforms and controls nature; social technology refers to the organization of human society, such as the organization of systems and publishing activities [19]. Social technology and natural technology interact. The technological progress of China's publishing industry is not an independent natural technological progress, but also accompanied by social and technological changes such as editing and publishing norms and publishing processes brought by informatization. The role of system reform on technological progress cannot be ignored. Domestically produced e-books surpass Amazon's Kindle in performance, but due to the backwardness of social technology, manufacturers cannot effectively organize users and content providers to form an ecosystem around readers. It is necessary to integrate the technological progress of publishing with the technology of social production and consumption organization. In the 5G era, we must not only strengthen the research and development of natural technologies, but also strengthen the research on the social and technological changes brought by 5G, that is, the changes in social organization methods and business models brought by 5G.
Fifth, 5G will push the publishing industry back to the material age. The core of early publishing technology was how to fix information on publishing proprietary media, paper. With the advancement of digitalization, the material medium of publishing is no longer proprietary, and computers, mobile phones, and tablets are all multi-purpose tools. The materiality of publishing is often overlooked. Publishing is returning to the material age, and the representative is the continuous increase in sales of electronic paper book (e-book) readers, indicating that users value not only the information experience but also the material experience. The rise of audiobooks also proves the importance of sound as a material carrier for content realization. In the 5G era, there are more devices connected to the Internet, and the reading scenarios are more complicated and rich. The interconnection of all things will inevitably bring the material return of publishing, and the media and interface will be as important as the content. At present, major manufacturers are seizing the market of smart speakers and smart homes, and it is the material entrance of future information consumption. How to transform information consumption into material consumption, such as making use of material product manufacturing rituals and creating an atmosphere, will be the foreseeable direction of change in publishing technology in the future.
In addition, the 70-year technological development also shows that the self-developed technology is more suitable for our market and has made us less affected by foreign countries. Therefore, the 5G era's publishing technology should also be based on independent development.
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来源: http://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/wkIE_pqjn2JeJRKJxVijCQ

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