From Grafting to Independence: The Core and Form of the Future Development of VR Publishing under the Concept of Behavior
Abstract: There are many attempts at VR technology in the current publishing field, but almost all the publications introduced by these attempts are grafted on traditional publishing, and the concept is still the traditional publishing concept. Such a simple superimposed publishing method is not true VR, and it is difficult to adapt to future deep VR publishing changes. VR publishing needs to start from the essential characteristics of VR technology. It is recognized that this publishing method should provide behaviors generated by interaction, and then move towards an independent development model of behavioral platforms. The platform sells a behavioral environment with limited models and frameworks. Users purchase a way of existence in the VR virtual environment, and the content is contained in the behavior. The publisher should have a composite identity in it, and complete the selection, deployment, integration and gain of resources within the converged platform.
Keywords: virtual reality (VR) publishing behavior platform publisher middle picture classification number: G230
I. INTRODUCTION In recent years, the boom in virtual reality (VR) has benefited from the popularization of civilians brought by the drastic decline in equipment costs and prices. In March 2014, Facebook ’s acquisition of Oculus Studios began. The major curtain of VR layout for major technology and Internet companies. The rapid popularity of VR in 2016 has made this year known as the "first year of VR", and many traditional media have also joined.
The practice of VR technology in the publishing field is mainly divided into two types: one is to VR the existing copyrighted content, and use VR (that is, multimedia) to present the existing content in a more three-dimensional and vivid manner, such as virtual in educational publishing Demonstration, virtual training, virtual laboratory, etc. , but its essence is only to migrate the content and improve the experience of storage and communication media; the other is to bundle traditional VR products with traditional publishing to supplement traditional content, such as A series of books on the dinosaur world adventure published by Beijing Children's Publishing House and Yishi Interactive , Conde Nast Traveler's VR App based on the content of the "Condé Nast Traveler" magazine launched by Condé Nast China and HTC Vive, Yueyou Global Travel Network and Vive paper application , both are complementary experiences on paper content. The VR part itself is not independent, so it cannot exist without paper publishing.
Therefore, the current practice of VR technology in the field of publishing is still relying on traditional publishing, grafting new technology with the old model to form a bundled complex. Although VR is still in the exploration stage in the publishing field, and many aspects have not yet been fully formed, the concepts of frontline practitioners have not changed in response to changes in the media. They believe that VR can "make books from a single graphic and text carrier into multimedia Carrier, abstract graphic and textual presentation becomes an immersive spatial presentation, reaching reader-computer interaction ". In specific operations, it is still necessary to" use the advantages of traditional magazines to serve their own media attributes " ]. Due to the conservative thinking mode of publishers and mechanically superimposing simple superposition, VR publishing has not departed from the traditional publishing media attributes, but merely enriches the form of traditional publishing. At present, VR publishing is a singularity that takes advantage of readers ’immersive, interactive, and imaginative experiences formed by spectacles . Once readers have a lot of exposure to VR, the spectacles experience will fade away, so graft publishing The model is no longer attractive and competitive.
To a large extent, the motivation for publishing-related VR in the publishing industry is to save the decline of paper publishing. They believe that "virtual reality technology, like other digital publishing technologies, can enable the publishing industry to obtain diversified income and expand its readership, thereby preventing The number of readers and profits are declining, and they are preparing for the growth of this field in the next 10 years ". However, publishing VR or VR publishing is not a mechanical medium-to-medium migration. The medium is a material form and should be based on the medium itself, fully infiltrating the unique materialized propagation characteristics of the medium; "paper + digital" Publishing and distribution methods bring only incremental innovations, not revolutionary innovations that make full use of and build upon new media. The "innovation" floating on the surface will quickly dissipate after the tuyere, and the publishing industry may once again be trapped in the difficulty of adapting to new media. Faced with VR as a new medium, the publishing industry should fully analyze the characteristics of its media, reverse its inherent cognition, and redefine VR publishing. On this basis, gradually clarify the methods and modes that VR publishing should have, and abandon gimmicks, so that practitioners (publishers) can clearly recognize their roles and work in a reasonable mode.
2. Interaction and Behavior McLuhan ’s interpretation of the medium always has the meaning of “body writing”. He believes that the medium is an extension of human consciousness (perception). “The mechanical age has completed the extension of the body in the space, and is now rapidly approaching from The stage of technically simulating consciousness ", and VR further integrates, strengthens and expands the above two stages. The "revolution brought by it is to establish a physical space with length, width, height, and time that can be touched from the image" , in an attempt to achieve a virtual reality of objective reality. When people are in an idealized virtual reality environment, their experience should be infinitely close to how they feel about the real physical world. This feeling is firstly a holographic visual experience wrapped in a panoramic image, and secondly, a behavioral perception experience that can interact with the physical world. The two together add up to form the immersive sensation repeatedly mentioned when discussing VR. But immersion "is not directly provided by the VR device, but the meaning construction process of reconstruction through user perception and user's reprocessing of VR content ... immersion is not given to the user on the surface, but is handled and decided by the user Flow regime ". Therefore, in VR, "human" (or "body" as McLuhan said) is the decisive component. After the technical conditions are met, human consciousness and perception determine whether VR can be presented in a virtual way. In the real media, VR's ontological characteristics have diminished its own media properties.
Therefore, when a person's perceptual body is extended into a virtual environment that is close to reality, what people have to do is interact with this environment, that is, interaction. The interaction here has two meanings: the first layer is the concrete interaction, that is, the behavior of the person occurs, the environment makes specific feedback according to the behavior, and forms an uninterrupted cycle between interaction and complex; the second layer is macro abstraction To interact, people need to exchange information with this virtual environment, and also with people in other virtual environments. They also need to exchange information with VR Cyberspace, which is composed of countless virtual environments. A single virtual environment is like a house in which one lives. Many households form a unit building, and the unit buildings form a community. The virtual environment should also have a similar composition structure, and people can shuttle between subsets and master sets for information exchange. . "Experience and immersiveness is just a stage in the development process for VR. What is ultimately to be achieved is the exchange of information."  For VR publishing, the impact of "interaction" on traditional publishing concepts is huge. . Traditional publishing is more about "presenting". A paper is in front of the reader, and everything should be there. Even if the reader wants to talk to it, it is still standing still. At present, the nature of VR publications launched by the publishing industry has not changed. VR is still regarded as a medium-like tool (the tool has strong features, not to mention the recognition of the dilution of media properties), but it only adds the surface layer of VR technology. With its immersive sense and simple interactive experience, it sends a lot of information and receives little. Humans are not a decisive component in the virtual environment constructed by such VR publications, and the shallow immersion they generate is not a fluid state that is handled and determined by users. It can be seen that the reasonable future direction and ultimate mode of VR publishing is interaction. In addition to the surface experience brought by the device and technology, the interaction here should also have the information interaction between humans and the virtual environment.
In traditional publishing, when a publication is sold, it sells a book, a newspaper, a magazine, and a disc. However, in VR publishing, readers (users) need to interact with the publication. Therefore, publishers When selling devices (including software and hardware) and content, it is more about selling. Actions come first, and content depends on actions. First, interaction itself is behavior. As mentioned above, it originates from both the publisher and the user, and may come from multiple parties in the future. Second, the publisher provides behavior, and the creator (publisher) determines VR publishing during product design. The behavior patterns and frameworks that objects should carry. Users behave in such behavior patterns and frameworks, and then form interactions. Finally, content is brought out in behavior patterns and frameworks, and users generate information with content in such virtual environments. Interaction. Since VR is a virtual reality of an objective reality, it presents a simulation system close to the real world, and the properties of media tend to fade. Therefore, the core idea of behavior in VR is to "let it happen", that is, to provide a "field" for behavior to occur. What the publisher is doing is constructing a personalized definition of its own content for this "field," leaving the rest to happen on its own. Although "presence" cannot be achieved yet, "highly interactive and 'killer' applications will appear in the next 2-3 years after the popularity of hardware" , and our research on VR publishing should not stay In front of me.
3. Platform and Industry Chain At present, the majority of domestic VR publishing is still at the stage of single product alone. This is an inevitable situation in each field at the early stage of development. However, VR publishing will eventually move towards the developmental platform of behavioral platforms, because the "field" for behavioral occurrence is a wide-area concept. There are multiple connections within the "field", and different "fields" are both independent and interdependent. The platform-type architecture is more in line with the "field" form. The VR platform carries behaviors. Whether it is the behaviors of creators, publishers, or users, it is within the platform to achieve the convergence of multi-party behaviors in a defined framework and mode. All information (including knowledge, entertainment), technology, and hardware are dissolved in behavior, forming a co-solution within the platform. What the platform sells is also behavior, that is, the behavior environment that defines the model and framework. In other words, the user purchases a way of existence in the VR environment, they act in this way, interact with information in this way, and finally obtain the target content.
At present, some companies have developed VR based on the platform model, and there have been some attempts to develop it in a manner similar to that of the behavioral platform. You can turn pages like you would normally read a book and select what you want to see ". In addition to HTC VIVE, several mainstream technology companies such as PSN, Oculus, and Steam VR have established VR platforms. "Samsung and Oculus launched the Gear VR App Store for mobile VR distribution. The Cardboard App Store relies on Google Play for application distribution. ". The above platforms follow a comprehensive line, with cooperation with the traditional publishing industry, but not focusing on publishing. Facing the tide of VR, "The advantage of traditional publishing industry lies in its history and traditions, which have made a deep accumulation in content and copyright ownership" . Based on this accumulation, the traditional publishing industry has also made attempts to build VR publishing platforms. The "VR Reading and Innovation Education Demonstration Platform"  co-constructed by Qingdao Publishing Group and HTC in March 2017 is one of them. However, aside from the ideal model of behavioral platforms, we only focus on the status quo. The biggest problem of these platforms is that they are scattered and mixed. There are few connections between platforms, and the barriers are high, which cannot form a connection. The nature of the context in which the behavior occurs. In addition, existing VR publishing platforms, especially those established by traditional publishing companies, focus too much on appearance, that is, the publication of specific content products, and lack of attention to the core of the platform. It is difficult for publications within their own platform to form interactive effects. In such a competitive environment, when "authors can provide content to both publishers and Internet companies," platform mergers and platform demise are inevitable. After all, "concentration of traffic can produce benefits" . As Zuckerberg said, at the specific operational level, the correct operation mode of the platform should use the core SDK / API ② to control the distribution and content of VR. The SDK / API can form an effective connection and may obtain huge economic benefits. 
Whether the development trend of VR publishing in the future is to inherit the existing platform, publish content on the mainstream platform, or establish a new independent platform to make the new platform segmented, it is certain that the total number of platforms will be small. Under the premise of a small number of major platforms, the industry chain of VR publishing is no longer a linear form similar to the traditional industry chain, but will gradually form a platform-centric radial industry chain. In the industrial chain, content production (copyrights), copyright engines (VR engines), operating systems (operating systems), hardware and components (components) and other links are in an upstream position, a horizontal parallel relationship, the platform is in The middle and lower reaches of the industrial chain mainly control the SDK / API, and are all connected nodes. The upstream loops all point to the platform, and the transmission and feedback relationship between them is weak. Any one of the loops directly transfers the integration of the other loops from the platform to the platform to carry out its own production. Therefore, the length of the VR publishing industry chain will not be too long, but the overall coverage will be broad, with greater horizontal diversity. For traditional large publishing companies, the value division brought by this industry chain model seems a bit cruel. After all, in the early stage of digital publishing, traditional publishing companies have proposed to use a vertically integrated whole industry chain publishing model to improve bargaining power and profitability. .  But even if it belongs to digital publishing, the entire industry chain model is not suitable for VR publishing, because the core resource of traditional publishing is content copyright, while the core resource of VR publishing is the platform, and the content production is open and diversified. Therefore, in VR publishing, product producers are diversified, and are no longer a single publishing company like book publishing. Comprehensive media, film and television companies, game companies, and personal studios may join it, which will further enrich and expand The horizontal diversity of the upstream of the industrial chain, the boundaries of the publishing concept will be blurred, the industry will form crossovers and alliances, the industrial chain will continue to expand with the platform as the center, and it will not even rule out the formation of a media complex industrial chain.
Fourth, the role of publishers From the perspective of the characteristics of VR publishing and the shape of the industry chain, publishers are located in the middle and lower reaches of the industry chain, and pure front-line practitioners are gathered on the platform. The role of publishers in VR publishing is also different from traditional publishing, which can be analyzed from the overall perspective and the specific perspective.
When the publisher is viewed as a whole, it is essentially a behavior group that executes and builds behavior models and frameworks within the platform. Because publishing is a behavior in VR itself, it needs to sell its output to User-defined behavior. In graft publishing (current model) VR publishing, the better integrated publishers have three identities: "The first identity is a high-quality content producer, the second identity is a content distributor, and the third identity is VR / AR integration service provider. " Such publishers have recognized the composite identity that VR publishers should have, and they are aware of the future behavior of knowledge and information services from the perspective of" integrated service providers. " . In the limited behavior of VR publishing in the future, the information service provision will be a dynamic state, and the user's demand behavior will also be dynamic. This demand will come from the triggering of any element in the environment built by VR to the user, such as When he touched the scene, he wanted to read a few words from a book and then jump to a similar scene in a movie. Therefore, the publisher's specific role should be the manager of the core SDK / API. The behavioral model and framework are defined through development toolkits and program interfaces. The rest is handed over to other links in the industry chain in accordance with this dynamic limiting model and The framework goes to completion.
From the perspective of individual practitioners, the individual practitioners in traditional publishers are editors. But "the wide application of digital publishing technology has brought great challenges to traditional editing, and editors are facing a dilemma in the digital publishing industry chain" . The quantitative, professional, and segmented content makes use of It is almost impossible for editors to work in the traditional way. On the basis of digital publishing, VR publishing has further subverted the role of editing, and the behavioral and platformized models have brought about changes in production methods. Some studies have proposed that the "meta law" of editing is "selection and processing" when summarizing the basic rules of editing activities , and some studies have suggested that the nature of editing activities is "selection and gain" . In VR publishing, even if the traditional editing work's concrete and specific work content is stripped, the core of the editing behavior will still be retained. Editor practitioners will gradually evolve into roles similar to producers or product managers. What they do is to complete the selection, deployment, integration, and gain of resources in one platform, and call for multiple types of collaborative work. They do not specifically participate in each The contents of each job. Since all the upstream links in the industry chain point to the platform, the platform itself has the ability to process and digest different resources, and the editing activities rely on the platform's integrated and processed resources to choose to call and achieve gains. Among them, the core SDK / API will still become a key tool to complete management and behavior limitation, and indirectly control distribution and content.
V. Concluding Remarks Although all traditional industries will face the dilemma of “difficulty in turning ships” when facing emerging technologies, U-turns at the conscious and cognitive level may be more important and necessary than U-turns at the decision-making and operational levels. The research and discussion in this article are based on the fact that VR technology is ideal. Although the development of technology is fast, it will not be completed overnight. Even if the difficulties such as dizziness, distortion and delay are solved, there will still be many technical problems that interfere with the construction of the most ideal "full presence" environment of VR. However, these do not affect the advancement of predictive research in technology. Stanley Weinbaum first described in 1935 "wearable devices that can provide sensory experiences such as sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch." [ 24], I wouldn't expect VR to be as shocking as it is today. Therefore, with the improvement of technology, VR publishing will gradually break away from the current grafting model in the development and move towards independent VR publishing. In independent VR publishing, interaction-induced behaviors and behavior-built platforms will become the core ideas, because they are rooted in the essential characteristics of VR and born from the media ontology.
Note ① Partly borrowed from Bourdieu's "field theory". Bourdieu defined "fields" as a network or a configuration of the objective relationship between locations. These locations are objectively defined, and there are inherently powerful, lively, and potential existences. See Li Quansheng. A brief analysis of Bourdieu's field theory [J]. Journal of Yantai University (Philosophy and Social Science Edition), 2002 (2). But the "field" discussed here has little to do with markets and capital.
② SDK stands for Software Development Kit, which is a collection of development tools for engineers when building application software; API stands for Application Programming Interface, which allows software engineers to gain the ability to access a set of routines.
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